Investigating Neoliberal Values in EFL Textbooks in Indonesia

Meli Aulia Utami, Siti Nurul Azkiyah, Muhammad Farkhan



There has been a wide acknowledgment that textbooks are a common medium of classroom instruction. Simulatenously, a growing body of research have found that ELT textbooks have promoted certain ideology, namely neoliberalism. This study concerns the endorsement of neoliberalism and how it is embedded in both locally-developed and internatonally-published ELT textbooks used in Indonesia. Using content analysis, the finding reveals that all the chosen textbooks contain the neoliberal mentality. The mandatory local textbook focuses on how to promote competition, while the local private textbook highlights material wealth and competition. On the other hand, the imported global textbook endorses human capital agenda. In other words, each textbook endorses different neoliberal values. The findings in this study imply the need for critical reading before the textbooks are prescribed to be used especially when the potential readers of the textbooks have different cultural values and learning objectives than those of commonly reproduced neoliberal values in imported ELT textbooks as previous studies found.


Tidak dapat dipungkiri bahwa buku sebagai bahan ajar telah menjadi media paling populer dalam kegiatan ajar-mengajar di kelas. Penelitian sebelumnya juga menemukan bahwa buku ajar bahasa Inggris telah menjadi media untuk menyebarkan ideologi, salah satunya yaitu neoloberalisme. Oleh karena itu, studi ini bertujuan untuk meneliti adanya ideologi neoliberalisme dan bagaimana ideologi tersebut direpresentasikan dalam buku ajar bahasa Inggris baik yang diproduksi secara lokal maupun impor. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan konten analisis, studi ini menemukan bahwa dalam buku bahan ajar bahasa Inggris, terdapat nilai-nilai ideologi neoliberalisme. Buku bahan ajar wajib nasional berfokus pada glorifikasi kompetisi. Sedangkan buku bahan ajar domestik yang lain mementingkan kekayaan materi dan kompetisi. Di sisi lain, buku bahan ajar bahasa Inggris impor lebih menonjolkan human capital sebagai nilai neoliberalismenya. Melihat temuan tersebut, diperlukan critical reading sebelum suatu buku direkomendasikan untuk dijadikan bahan ajar terutama ketika target pengguna buku tersebut memiliki budaya dan juga nilai-nilai ideologi yang berbeda dari ideologi yang, menurut penelitian sebelumnya, kerap kali direproduksi dalam buku ajar bahasa Inggris, yaitu neoliberalisme.


Neoliberalisme; buku bahan ajar bahasa Inggris; bahasa dan ideologi; analisis konten; analisis diskursus; Neoliberalism; ELT textbook; language and ideology; content analysis; power in discourse

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