Annas Surdyanto



This study aimed at providing the portraits of bilingual schools in the capital of Indonesia and critically revealing the Ministry of Culture and Education policy on bilingual schools. This study employed a qualitative case design and took place at 5 bilingual schools. The data were taken with semi-structure interview, school document, observation and related literature. There were 10 teachers participating. This study showed descriptions of bilingual schools regarding the curriculum, the teaching and learning activity, the assessment, the accessibility, the teachers, the students, and the role of environment. The data derived were then analyzed and used to evaluate the government policy on bilingual schools related to the process of teaching and learning as well as its assessment. The analysis and evaluation found out some missing alignments between the policy and bilingual school principles. They were uncontrolled curriculum development as a combination of international and national curriculum, the Teacher Training Program provided by the government (PLPG) towards bilingual school teachers, and the establishment of standardized test. This study suggested that there must be an education council specialized for bilingual schools that concerns on designing the framework of school-based curriculum development (SBCD), teacher training program and standardized test establishment for bilingual schools.



Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyediakan potret sekolah bilingual di ibukota Indonesia dan mengungkapkan kebijakan Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan di sekolah bilingual secara kritis. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain kasus kualitatif dan berlangsung di lima sekolah bilingual. Data diambil dengan wawancara semi-struktur, dokumen sekolah, observasi dan literatur terkait. Ada 10 guru yang berpartisipasi. Penelitian ini menunjukkan deskripsi sekolah bilingual mengenai kurikulum, kegiatan belajar mengajar, penilaian, aksesibilitas, guru, siswa, dan peran lingkungan. Data yang diperoleh kemudian dianalisis dan digunakan untuk mengevaluasi kebijakan pemerintah pada sekolah bilingual yang terkait dengan proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran serta penilaiannya. Analisis dan evaluasi menemukan beberapa keberpihakan yang hilang antara kebijakan dan prinsip sekolah bilingual. Mereka adalah pengembangan kurikulum yang tidak terkendali sebagai kombinasi kurikulum internasional dan nasional, Program Pelatihan Guru yang disediakan oleh pemerintah (PLPG) terhadap guru sekolah dwibahasa, dan pembentukan tes standar. Studi ini menyarankan bahwa harus ada dewan pendidikan khusus untuk sekolah bilingual yang berkaitan dengan merancang kerangka pengembangan kurikulum berbasis sekolah (SBCD), program pelatihan guru dan pendirian tes standar untuk sekolah bilingual.


How to Cite: Surdyanto, A.. (2018). A Brief View on Bilingual Schools in the Capital of Indonesia. IJEE (Indonesian Journal of English Education), 5(1), 1-15. doi:10.15408/ijee.v5i1.8018


bilingual education, policy on bilingual education, bilingualism, Indonesian bilingual schools; pendidikan bilingual; kebijakan pendidikan bilingual; dua bahasa; Sekolah bilingual bahasa Indonesia


Bezzina, M. (1991). Teachers' Perceptions of Their Participation in School Based Curriculum Development: A Case Study. Curriculum Perspectives, 11 (2), 39–47.

Bolstad, R. (2004). School-based Curriculum Development: Redefining the Term for New Zealand Schools Today and Tomorrow. Paper presented at the conference of the New Zealand Association of Research in Education (NZARE). Wellington.

Brown, H. D. (2004). Language Assessment: Principles and Classroom Practices. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education.

Būdvytytě-Gudieně, A. and Toleikieně, R. (2008). Content and Language Integrated Learning: Features of Educational Methods. (cover story). Social Sciences (1392-0758) 60, 90–97.

Central Advisory Council for Education. (1959). The Crowther Report, 15 to 18 Vol. 1. London, HMSO

Creagh, S. (2014). National Standardised Testing and the Diluting of English as a Second Language (ESL) in Australia. English Teaching: Practice and Critique, 13(1), 24–38.

Cummins, J. (1981). Bilingualism and Minority Children. Ontario: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.

Cummins, J. and Corson, D. (Eds.). (1997). Encyclopedia of Language and Education 5: Bilingual Education. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Diah, M. (1982). National Language Policy and The Writing Curriculum in Indonesia: A Case Study. Urbana: Curriculum Laboratory, University of Illinois.

Giroux, H. and Penna, A. (1983). ‘Social Education in the Classroom: The Dynamics of the Hidden Curriculum.’ In H. Giroux and D. Purpel (eds) The Hidden Curriculum and Moral Education. Berkeley, California: McCutchan Publishing Corporation. 100–121.

Glatthorn, A. A. (1987). Curriculum Renewal. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Haddock, D., Nicholls, H., and Stacey, K. (2008). Working with English Language Learners: A handbook for Teacher Aides and Bilingual Tutors. Auckland.

Hill, K. and Mcnamara, T. (2003). Assessment Research in Second Language Curriculum Intiatives. In John P. Keeves and Ryo Watanabe (eds.) International Handbook of Educational Research in the Asia-Pacific Region. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 629-640

Ho, W. K. and Wong, R. Y. L. (1997). Bilingual Education in Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia. In Cummins, J. and Corson, D. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Language and Education, Vol.5. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp 177-185

Johnson, D.C. 2013. Language Policy. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Joint Task Force on Assessment of the International Reading Association and the National Council of Teachers of English. (2010). Standards for the assessment of reading and writing. (Rev. ed.). Urbana, IL: NCTE and Newark, DE: IRA.

Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition Language Teaching Methodology. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Lauder, A. (2008). The Status and Function of English in Indonesia: A review of key factors. Makara, Sosial Humaniora. Vol. 12, no. 1, July 2008: 9-20

Lin, A. M. Y. and Man, E. Y. F. (2009). Bilingual Education Southeast Asian Perspectives. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Lindholm-Leary, K. J. (2001). Dual language education. Avon, England: Multilingual Matters.

Lowenberg, P. H. (1991). English as an additional language in Indonesia. World Englishes. Vol. LO. No. 2. pp. 127-138. 1991.

Martin D. J. and Loomis K. S. (2014). Building Teachers: A Constructivist Approach to Introducing Education, 2nd edition. Belmont: Wadsworth.

Martin, J. (1983). What Should We Do with a Hidden Curriculum When We Find One? In H. Giroux and D. Purpel (eds) The Hidden Curriculum and Moral Education. Berkeley, California: McCutchan Publishing Corporation, 1983. 122–139.

Reynolds, A.J. and Clements. M. (2005). Parental Involvement and Children’s School Success, In Evanthia N. Patrikakou, Roger P. Weissberg, Sam Redding, Herbert J. Walberg (eds.) School–Family Partnerships for Children’s Success. New York: Teachers College. pp. 105-127

Seel, N. M. (2004). Curriculum Development, Instructional Design, and In-formation Technology. In N. M. Seel & S. Dijkstra (Eds.), Curriculum, Plans, Processes of Instructional Design: International Perspectives (pp. 131-143). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Surdyanto, A. (2016) Students' Perceptions of the Use of English at a Bilingual Setting Based on Their Kindergarten Language Background. Journal of ELT Research, [S.l.], v. 1, n. 2, p. 134-143, sep. 2016. ISSN 2527-7448. Available at:

Vygotlsky, L. (1978). Mind in Society: The development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.15408/ijee.v5i1.8018


  • There are currently no refbacks.