Strategies of Cultural Gap Translation in World Herritage – Sites and Living Culture of Indonesia

M. Agus Suriadi



Translating certain texts from one language to another language might become one of the most challenging tasks for a translator, especially for a text containing a lot of cultural words. A translator is frequently faced with the problem of how to treat the implicit aspects of culture and how to find appropriate strategies in translating a text from a Source Text (ST) into Target Text (TT). It is probably right to say that a translator has to deal with a lot of thigs to do which have not, perhaps, been aware for cultural gaps and their significance in translation.

Many translation theorists have concerned with the problems of cultural knowledge and cultural differences for many decades, might be, since translation as sciences had been recognized. Cultural knowledge and cultural differences begin to draw attention from many experts to focus on translation theories and to conduct translation training for academic studies. Therefore, the present paper aims at presenting strategies of translating the cultural concepts by different theorists. In addition to this, it is also expected to reinforce a translator to choose the appropriate procedures and strategies in translating process.



Menerjemahkan teks-teks tertentu dari suatu Bahasa ke Bahasa yang lain, seringkali, menjadi salah satu tugas berat sekaligus merepotkan bagi seorang penerjemah, khusunya dalam menerjemahkan teks-teks yang mengandung banyak kata-kata budaya. Seorang penerjemah sering kali dihadapkan pada masalah-masalah bagaimana mengaplikasikan aspek-aspek budaya dan bagaimana menemukan strategi dalam menerjemahkan sebuah teks dari Bahasa Sumber (BSu) ke dalam Bahasa Sasaran (BSa). Hal ini, mungkin saja, dikarenakan seorang penerjemah harus direpotkan dengan hal-hal, yang bisa jadi, seringkali tidak disadari oleh seorang penerjemah dalam menghadapi perbedaan budaya yang memiliki peran penting dalam penerjemahan.

Banyak pakar teori penerjemahan merasa prihatin dengan masalah-masalah yang berkenaan dengan perbedaan dan pemahaman budaya dalam kurun waktu yang cukup lama, yang kemungkinan besar, telah ada sejak penerjemahan dijadikan sebagai disiplin ilmu pengetahuan. Perbedaan dan pengetahuan budaya ini kemudian menyita perhatian dari para pemerhati penerjemahan untuk menyoroti masalah teori penerjemahan dalam kajian akademis. Oleh karena itu, tulisan ini bertujuan untuk membahas masalah strategi dalam menerjemahkan konsep-konsep budaya dengan mengacu pada pendapat pakar penerjemahan tertentu, seperti Peter Newmark. Di samping itu, tulisan ini juga diharapkan dapat membantu penerjemah untuk memilih strategi yang cocok dalam melakukan proses penerjemahan.


Bahasa Sumber; Bahasa Target; Strategi; Perbedaan Budaya



Baker, M. (1992). In Other Words: A Coursebook on Translation. London and New York: Routledge.

Baker, Mona (2001). Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies. London: Routledge.

_____, Mona (2005). Translation and Conflict. London and New York: Routledge.

Catford, J. C (2000). A Linguistic Theory of Translation. London: Oxford University Press.

Chesterman A. (1997). Memes of Translation: The Spread of Ideas in Translation Theory. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: J. Benjamins publication company.

Fawcett, P (1997). Translation and Language. UK: St. Jerome, Manchester.

Gambier, Y, Miriam, S, Radegundis, S (2004). Doubts and Directions in Translation Studies. The Netherlands: John Benjamins.

Graedler, A.L. (2000). Cultural shock. Retrieved December 6, 2006 from ranslation/grammar/ ml

H. Minabad, Hassan (2004). “Culture in Translation and Translation of Culture Specific Items”.

Harvey, M. (2003). A Beginner's Course in Legal Translation: The Case of Culture-Bound Terms.

Hutchins, W. J. and H. L. Somers (1992). An Introduction to Machine Translation. London: Academic Press.

Jakobson, R. (1959/ 2000) "On linguistics aspects and translation", in L. Venuti (ed.) (2000), p. 113-18.

Komissarov, V.N (1991). “Language and Culture in Translation: Competitors or Collaborators?” in traduction, terminologie, redaction. vol. 4. From

Larson, M. (1998). Meaning-Based Translation: A Guide to Cross Equivalents. Lanham: University Press of America

Lefevere, André (1992). Translation History Culture. London: Routledge.

Leppihalme, R (1997). Culture Bumps: An Empirical Approach to the Translation of Allusions. Britain: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Munday, Jeremy (2001). Introducing Translation Studies.

Newmark, P. (1988a). A Textbook of Translation. Hertfordshire: Prentice Hall.

___________. (1988b). Approaches to Translation. Hertfordshire: Prentice Hall.

___________. (1991). About Translation: Multilingual Matters. Clevedon, Philadelphia, Adelaide: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Nida, E. A. (1964). Towards a Science of Translation, with Special Reference to Principles and Procedures Involved in Bible Translating. Leiden: Brill.

Pedersen, J. (2005). How is Culture Rendered in Subtitles? In MuTra Conference Proceedings. Retrieved 7 November 2009 from:

Sandrini, P. (2006). LSP Translation and Globalization. In: Gotti, Maurizio; Šarčević, Susan (eds): Insights into Specialized Translation. Linguistic Insights 46. Bern Berlin Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Snell-Hornby, Mary. (1988). Translation Studies: an Integrated Approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Toury, G. (1978). “The Nature and Role of Norms in Translation”, in: Lawrence Venuti (ed.), The Translation Studies Reader . London. New York: Routledge. 198–211.

Venuti, L. (1998). Strategies of Translation. In M. Baker (Ed.), Encyclopedia of translation studies. London and New York: Routledge.

Wiersema (2004). Globalisation and Translation. January 2004 from

DOI: 10.15408/bat.v21i1.3828


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2015 M. Agus Suriadi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.