The Distinction of Government Administration and Judicial Institutions in The Umayyad Dynasty
This paper aimed to reveal the government administration system's distinction in finance and justice that existed in the Umayyad. The Umayyad had the right side in improving government administration, finance, economy, and justice. To what extent was the reform and distinction of government administration, finance, and judiciary pursued by the Umayyad that led to society's benefit besides the atrocities he had ever made? The researchers conducted a library study with a descriptive analysis approach, collected sources, verified, and interpreted the policies and updates made by the Umayyad. The study showed the Umayyad had made distinctions and reforms that brought about a lot of benefits. Although they seemed the duplication of Persian and Roman governments, financial administration policies still referred to Islamic rules and were not influenced by Rome and Persia. The most significant reform was establishing the Mazalim Court separated from the ordinary judiciary. The perpetrators of this crime were not ordinary people but state officials handled directly by the caliph and judges who could act reasonably and act decisively. A vast area of neat administration supported the economic activity, and along with Islamic law, the Umayyad did not exercise a monopoly. However, this government lasted shortly for 90 years (661-750 AD) because of the power succession policy, the ruler's lifestyle, fanaticism, and political opponents' attack.
Ahmad Z. Anam. (2020). Tadarus Risalah Al-Qadha’ Umar ibn Khattab.
Arnold, T. W. (2003). The spread of Islam in the world: A history of peaceful preaching (Repr). Goodword Books.
Berkey, J. P. (2002). The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600–1800 (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511817861
Borrut, A., Cobb, P. M., Institut français du Proche-Orient, University of Notre Dame, & Medieval Institute (Eds.). (2010). Umayyad legacies: Medieval memories from Syria to Spain.
Buana, C. (2019). Budaya Satire pada Masa Dinasti Umayyah dalam Syair Hijā’ Al-Farazdaq. Buletin Al-Turas, 25(2), 209–226. https://doi.org/10.15408/bat.v25i2.11744
Constable, O. R. (2000). Muslim trade in the late medieval Mediterranean world. In M. Fierro (Ed.), The New Cambridge History of Islam (1st ed., pp. 632–647). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521839570.024
Emiralioğlu, P. (2016). Islam and empire. In N. Dalziel & J. M. MacKenzie (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Empire (pp. 1–8). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118455074.wbeoe398
Farah, N. (n.d.). Perkembangan Ekonomi Dan Administrasi Pada Masa Bani Umayyah Dan Bani Abbasiyah. 26.
Fīrūzābādī, M. b. Y. al-. (1999). Al-Qāmūs al-muḥīt̲. Manšūrāt Muḥammad ʻAlī Bayḍūn. Dār al-Kutub al-ʻIlmiyya.
Grabar, O. (1963). Umayyad “Palace” and the ’Abbasid “Revolution. Studia Islamica, 18, 5–18. JSTOR. https://doi.org/10.2307/1595176
Hawting, G. R. (2000). The first dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad caliphate AD 661-750 (2nd ed). Routledge.
Hitti, P. K. (1970). The Umayyad Caliphate: Mu‘āwiyah Establishes a Dynasty. In P. K. Hitti, History of the Arabs (pp. 189–198). Macmillan Education UK. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-15402-9_17
Hofmann, M. W. (1999). Islam, the alternative (2nd enlarged ed). Amana.
Ibn Kathīr, I. ibn ʻUmar. (2012). The caliphate of Banu Umayyah: The first phase: taken from al-Bidayah wan-nihayah. Maktaba Dar-us-Salam.
Ibn Saʻd, M. (1995). Social classes in Poulantzas's thought.
Ibn-al-Aṯīr, ʿIzz-ad-Dīn Abu-’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī. (2010). Al-Kāmil fī ’t-ta’rīh: Taʼlīf ʻIzz ad-Dīn Abī al-Ḥasan ʻAlī ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Athīr al-Ğazarī ; ḥaqqaqahu Abū al-Fidāʼ ʻAbd Allāh al-Qāḍī = Ibn al-Athir’s book of history (A. al-F. ʻAbd A. Qāḍī, Ed.; Ṭabʿa 5). Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīya.
Ibn-Ḫaldūn, ʿAbd-ar-Raḥmān Ibn-Muḥammad, & Rosenthal, F. (1981). The Muqaddimah: An introduction to history (5. pr). Princeton Univ. Pr.
Ibn-Kat̲īr, I. I.-ʻUmar, Muʻauwaḍ, ʻAlī Muḥammad, ʻAbd-al-Mauǧūd, ʻĀdil A, & Abū-Mulḥim, A. (2009). al- Bidāya wa-’n-nihāya 7/8. 7/8. Dār al-Kutub al-ʻIlmīya.
Meirison, M. (2019a). Mashlahah dan Penerapannya dalam Siyasah as Syar’iyah. Ijtihad, 32(1). https://doi.org/10.15548/ijt.v32i1.32
Meirison, M. (2019b). Legal Drafting in the Ottoman Period. Jurnal Ilmiah Al-Syir’ah, 17(1), 39. https://doi.org/10.30984/jis.v17i1.806
Meirison, M. (2020). Islamic Tolerance on Religious Freedom, Culture and Thought in Andalusia. Hikmatuna: Journal for Integrative Islamic Studies, 6(1). DOI - 10.28918/Hikmatuna.V6i1.2313. http://e-journal.iainpekalongan.ac.id/index.php/hikmatuna/article/view/2313
Nurhasan, N. (2018). Mu’awiyah: Penggagas Pertama Sistem Monarki dalam Islam. Buletin Al-Turas, 17(1), 39–60. https://doi.org/10.15408/bat.v17i1.4290
Sali, M. A. (2019). Distinction of Justice and Fairness during Umar bin Abdul Aziz's Reign. AJIS: Academic Journal of Islamic Studies, 4(2), 127. https://doi.org/10.29240/ajis.v4i2.954
Suñé Arce, J. (2019). Was the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba as Strong as Arab Chroniclers Claimed? Al-Masāq, 31(1), 35–49. https://doi.org/10.1080/09503110.2018.1553376
ʿIšš, Y. al-. (1996). ad-Daula al-ummawīya: Wa-l-aḥdāṯ allatī sabaqatha wa-mahhadat lahā ibtidāʾan min fitra ʿuṯmān (aṭ-ṭabʿa 3). Dār al-fikr.
Rifai Anwar (1998). an-Nizam al-Islamia. Dar al-Fikr al-Muasir; Dar al-Fikr
Muhammad Mustafa az-Zuhail. (1995). Tarikh al-Qadha fi al-Islam. Dar al-Fikr al-Muasir.
Tabari. (2012).Tarikh at-Tabari; Tarikh al-Umam wa al-Muluk
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2021 Meirison, Desmadi Saharuddin
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.