Potensi Antibakteri Ekstrak Metanol dan Senyawa Aromatik dari Buah Wualae (Etlingera elatior)

Sahidin Sahidin, Syefira Salsabila, Wahyuni Wahyuni, Fristiohady Adryan, Imran Imran

Abstract


Buah tanaman wualae (bahasa Tolaki) atau Etlingera elatior digunakan oleh masyarakat Tolaki (Sulawesi Tenggara) sebagai bumbu masak dan obat tradisional. Untuk mengungkap potensi tersebut, khususnya buah wualae, dilakukan kajian fitokimia dan farmakologi buah wualae. Kajian fitokimia meliputi isolasi dan penentuan struktur dikerjakan dengan metode kromatografi (kromatografi vakum cair dan kromatografi radial) dan spektroskopi (1H dan 13C NMR). Kajian farmakologi meliputi uji aktivitas biologi terhadap enam jenis bakteri (Bacillus subtilis FNCC 0060, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Salmonella enterica ATCC 14028, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, dan Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175). Hasilnya menunjukkan tiga senyawa fenolik telah berhasil diisolasi dan diidentifikasi dari buah wualae yaitu asam vanilat (1), asam p-hidroksibenzoat (2), dan asam kumarat (3). Ketiga senyawa tersebut pertama kali dilaporkan berhasil diisolasi dari buah E. elatior. Aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak metanol buah wualae dan tiga senyawa hasil isolasi menunjukkan bahwa sampel tersebut paling aktif terhadap bakteri S. mutans. Dengan demikian aktivitas senyawa-senyawa hasil isolasi dari buah E. elatior  berkorelasi dengan aktivitas ekstrak metanol buah E. elatior  terhadap S. mutans, dimana senyawa paling aktif adalah asam vanilat. Ekstrak yang dominan mengandung asam vanilat dari tanaman ini dapat dikembangkan sebagai herbal antibakteri S. mutans seperti herbal karies gigi dan obat kumur.

 

Kata kunci: Etlingera elatior, wualae, buah, senyawa aromatik, antibakteri.

 

The fruits of wualae (Tolakinese) or Etlingera elatior is utilized by Tolakinese (Sulawesi Tenggara) as spices and traditional medicine. To reveal the potencies, a study on phytochemical and pharmacological aspects have been carried out. The phytochemical study includes isolation and structure determination used chromatography methods (vacuum liquid chromatography and radial chromatography) and spectroscopy methods (1H NMR and 13C NMR). Biological activity was evaluated against some bacteria that are Bacillus subtilis FNCC 0060, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Salmonella enterica ATCC 14028, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175). The results showed that three aromatic compounds had been isolated and identified that are vanillic acid (1), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (2) and coumaric acid (3). All compounds are firstly reported that successfully isolated from fruits of Wualae. Antibacterial potency indicated that the methanol extracts and the isolated compounds are the most active towards S. mutans and have good activity correlation between the extracts and the compounds. Vanillic acid is the most active compound from E. elatior fruits. Thus, the extracts contain dominantly vanillic acid from          E. elatior fruits can be developed to be antibacterial herbals caused by S. mutans.

 

Keywords: Etlingera elatior, wualae, fruits, aromatic compounds, antibacterial activity.


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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v5i1.8658

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