Development Study of Binding Agent in Diffusive Gradient In Thin Films (DGT) Technique for Absorption of Phosphate Compounds using Nano-La2O3

Hanna Shafira, Rika Tri Yunarti, Asep Saefumillah


The abundance of phosphate is a concern because it causes problems in aquatic ecosystems. The diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique is a promising method for phosphate absorption because it can be used in situ. The DGT device consists of a membrane filter, a diffusive gel, and a binding gel. The presence of a binding agent in the binding gel makes the specific analyte bound to the binding gel. One of the binding agents that can be used for phosphate absorption is La2O3. Binding gel La2O3 was successfully synthesized that proven by the similarity of FTIR peaks of the diffusive gel and binding gel. The typical absorption of La-O also proves it from the binding gel at 642 cm-1 and 423 cm-1. La2O3 binding gel was made of N,-N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linker with an elution factor of 97.4%. DGT-La2O3 proved capable of adsorption for 72 hours, with phosphate absorbed at 1.91 x 105 ng. DGT-La2O3 also has the optimum ability to absorb phosphate at pH 3 of 1.93 x 105 ng.


DGT; eutrophication, La2O3; N,-N'-methylenebisacrylamide; phosphate;


Alam, M. M., Srinivasan, V., Mueller, A. V., & Gu, A. Z. (2021). Status and advances in technologies for phosphorus species detection and characterization in natural environment- A comprehensive review. Talanta, 233, 122458.

García, J. (2021). Ecological engineering practice as a global strategy to prevent eutrophication and microalgae blooms. Ecological Engineering, 161. 106152.

Julianti, S., Saefumillah, A., & Zulys, A. (2022). Study of mixed binding agent La-MOF and chelex-100 by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) devices. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2190(1), [012005].

Kabir, H., Nandyala, S. H., Rahman, M. M., Kabir, M. A., Pikramenou, Z., Laver, M., & Stamboulis, A. (2019). Polyethylene glycol assisted facile sol-gel synthesis of lanthanum oxide nanoparticles: structural characterisation and photoluminescence studies. Ceramics International, 45(1), 424-431.

Kitsiou, D., & Karydis, M. (2011). Coastal marine eutrophication assessment: a review on data analysis. Environment international, 37(4), 778–801.

Kobetičová, K., & Černý, R. (2019). Terrestrial Eutrophication of Building Materials and Buildings: An Emerging Topic in Environmental Studies. Science of the Total Environment, 689:1316–28.

Kuntari, F. R., Pranoto, S., & Sutresno, A. (2019). Studi Proses Difusi melalui Membran dengan Pendekatan Kompartemen. Jurnal Fisika Dan Aplikasinya, 15(2):62.

Li, K., Liu, Z., Shi, X., Wei, T., Ma L. Q., & Luo, J. (2020). Novel in Situ Method Based on Diffusive Gradients in Thin-Films with Lanthanum Oxide Nanoparticles for Measuring As, Sb, and V and in Waters. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 383:121196.

Moothedan, M., & Sherly, K. B. (2016). Synthesis, Characterization and Sorption Studies of Nano Lanthanum Oxide. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 9:29–37.

Mustofa, K., Yulizar, Y., Saefumillah, A., & Apriandanu, D. O. B. (2020). La2O3nanoparticles formation using Nothopanax scutellarium leaf extract in two-phase system and photocatalytic activity under UV light irradiation. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 902(1), [012018].

Pichette, C., Zhang, H., & Sauvé, S. (2009). Using Diffusive Gradients in Thin-Films for in Situ Monitoring of Dissolved Phosphate Emissions from Freshwater Aquaculture. Aquaculture, 286(3–4):198–202.

Ravi, G., Sarasija, M., Ayodhya, D., Kumari, L. S., & Ashok, D. (2019). Facile synthesis, characterization and enhanced catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol using NaBH4 by undoped and Sm3+, Gd3+, Hf3+ doped La2O3 nanoparticles. Nano convergence, 6(1), 12.

Razanajatovo, M. R., Gao, W., Song, Y., Zhao, X., Sun, Q., & Zhang, Q. (2021). Selective adsorption of phosphate in water using lanthanum-based nanomaterials: A critical review. Chinese Chemical Letters.

Ruttenberg, K. C. (2019). Phosphorus Cycle. 3rd ed. Elsevier Inc.

Sabbagh, F., & Muhamad, I. I. (2017). Acrylamide-Based Hydrogel Drug Delivery Systems : Release of Acyclovir from MgO Nanocomposite Hydrogel. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 0:1–12.

Saefumillah, A., & Rahmaniati H, R. (2015). Pengembangan Metode DGT (Diffusive Gradient In Thin Film) Dengan Binding Gel Fe-Al-Oksida dan Pengikat Silang N,N’-Methylenebisacrylamide untuk Penyerapan Fosfat dalam Air. Jurnal Kimia VALENSI, 1(1):20–25.

Santikasari, C., Saefumillah, A., & Zulys, A. (2020). Lanthanum based metal organic frameworks as a new binding agent material for diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) technique in bioavailability of phosphate removal. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 902(1), [012043].

Sintya, V., Saefumillah, A., & Zulys, A. (2020). Development study of iron-based metal organic frameworks (Fe-based MOFs) as a binding agent in diffusive gradient in thin film method (DGT) for phosphate adsorption. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 902(1), [012026].

Sulaiman, N., Yulizar, Y., & Apriandanu, D. O. B. (2018). Eco-friendly method for synthesis of La2O3 nanoparticles using Physalis angulata leaf extract. AIP Conference Proceedings 2023:15–19.

Tao, Y., Dan, D., Xuejiao, H., Changda, H., Guo, F., & Fengchang, W. (2019). Characterization of Phosphorus Accumulation and Release Using Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT) - Linking the Watershed to Taihu Lake, China. Science of the Total Environment, 673:347–56.

Wang, X., Wang, M., Song, H., & Ding, B. (2006). A simple sol–gel technique for preparing lanthanum oxide nanopowders. Materials Letters, 60(17–18): 2261–2265.

Ding, S., Xu, D., Wang, Y., Wang, Y., Li, Y., Gong, M., & Zhang, C. (2016). Simultaneous Measurements of Eight Oxyanions using High-Capacity Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (Zr-Oxide DGT) with a High-Efficiency Elution Procedure. Environmental Science and Technology, 50(14):7572–80.

Yabuki, L. N., Colaço, C. D., Menegário, A. A., Domingos, R. N., Kiang, C. H., & Pascoaloto, D. (2014). Evaluation of diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) for measuring Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn in Amazonian rivers. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 186(2), 961–969.

Zhang, H., Davison, W., Gadi, R., & Kobayashi, T. (1998). In Situ Measurement of Dissolved Phosphorus in Natural Waters Using DGT. Analytica Chimica Acta, 370(1):29–38.

Zhang, P., He, M., Huo, S., Li, F., & Li, K. (2022). Recent Progress in Metal-Based Composites toward Adsorptive Removal of Phosphate: Mechanisms, Behaviors, and Prospects. Chemical Engineering Journal, 446(P2):137081.

Zhao, Y., Li, Y., & Yang, F. (2021). Critical Review on Soil Phosphorus Migration and Transformation under Freezing-Thawing Cycles and Typical Regulatory Measurements. Science of the Total Environment, 751:141614.

Zhi, Y., Zhang, C., Hjorth, R., Baun, A., Duckworth, O. W., Call, D. F., Knappe, D. R. U., Jones, J. L., & Grieger, K. (2020). Emerging lanthanum (III)-containing materials for phosphate removal from water: A review towards future developments. Environment international, 145, 106115.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.15408/jkv.v8i2.26952


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Hanna Shafira

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.