Servant Leadership Improves the Knowledge Sharing Behavior of Employees in Organization: A Case of Higher Education Sector in Pakistan

Hina Amin, Farhan Ahmed, Riaz Hussain Soomro


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of servant leadership in organizations in Karachi and to investigate the level of knowledge sharing (KS) behavior among employees.  The study based on quantitative design and the primary data has collected from the higher education sector through a survey questionnaire. Furthermore, multiple regressions have used for model testing. The findings of the study-enlightened benefits of knowledge sharing behavior that can be prevailed through a servant leadership model and encourage employees' participation. Four traits of servant leadership that are altruistic calling, emotional healing, and organizational stewardship have a positive impact on knowledge sharing behavior of employees. The findings of the study will be beneficial for the employees of the organization to understand the importance of servant leadership and its application in enterprises.

JEL Classification: J59, M19, M54


servant leadership; knowledge sharing; employees’ behavior


Alavi, M., & Leidner, D. E. (2001). Review: Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management Systems: Conceptual Foundations and Research Issues. MIS Quarterly, 25(1), 107–136.

Avey, J. B., Wernshing, T. S., & Palanski, M. E. (2012). Exploring the Process of Ethical Leadership: The Mediating Role of Employee Voice and Psychological Ownership. Journal of Business Ethics, 107(1), 21–34.

Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Brewer, C. (2010). Servant Leadership: A Review of Literature. Online Journal for Workforce Education and Development, 4(2), 1–8.

Chennamaneni, A. (2007). Determinants of Knowledge Sharing Behaviors: Developing and Testing an Integrated Theoretical Model. (Unpublished Thesis). Texas: University of Texas.

Chien, M. H. (2004). A Study to Improve Organizational Performance: A View from SHRM. Journal of American Academy of Business, 4(1/2), 289–291.

Christensen, P. (2007). Knowledge Sharing: Moving Away from The Obsession with Best Practices. Journal of Knowledge Management, 11(1), 36–47.

Foss, N. J., & Pedersen, T. (2002). Transferring Knowledge in MNCs: The Role of Sources of Subsidiary Knowledge and Organizational Context. Journal of International Management, 8(1), 49–67.

Gold, A. H., Malhotra, A., & Segars, A. H. (2001). Knowledge Management: an Organizational Capabilities Perspective. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(1), 185–214.

Greenleaf, R. K. (1977). Servant Leadership. New York: Paulist Press.

Gupta, A., McDaniel, J. C., & Herath, S. K. (2005). Quality Management in Service Firms: Sustaining Structures of Total Quality Service. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 15(4), 389–402.

Hall, H. (2001). Social Exchange for Knowledge Exchange. In International Conference on Managing Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques. University of Leicester Management Centre.

Hinds, P. J., & Pfeffer, J. (2003). Why Organizations Don’t “Know What They Know”: Cognitive and Motivational Factors Affecting the Transfer of Expertise. In M. Ackerman, V. Pipek, & V. Wulf (Eds.), Sharing Expertise: Beyond Knowledge Management, (pp. 3–26). Cambridge: MIT Press.

Jabnoun, N., & Al-Ghasyah, H. A. (2005). Leadership Styles Supporting ISO 9000: 2000. The Quality Management Journal, 12(1), 21–29.

Kalshoven, K., Den Hartog, D. N., & de Hoogh, A. H. (2013). Ethical Leadership and Followers’ Helping and Initiative: The Role of Demonstrated Responsibility and Job Autonomy. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22(2), 165–181.

Krekeler, L. A. (2010). The Relationship between Servant Leadership Behavior and Individual Personality Style in New York. New Jersey: Seton Hall University.

Lee, H., & Choi, B. (2003). Knowledge Management Enablers, Processes, and Organizational Performance: An Integrative View and Empirical Examination. Journal of Management Information Systems, 20(1), 179–228.

Liden, R. C., Sparrowe, R. T., & Wayne, S. J. (1997). Leader-Member Exchange Theory: The Past and Potential for the Future. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 15, 47–119.

Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Zhao, H., & Henderson, D. (2008). Servant Leadership: Development of a Multidimensional Measure and Multi-level Assessment. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(2), 161–177.

Martin, R., Guillaume, Y., Thomas, G., Lee, A., & Epitropaki, O. (2016). Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) and Performance: a Meta‐Analytic Review. Personnel Psychology, 69(1), 67–121.

Melchar, D. E., & Bosco, S. M. (2010). Achieving High Organization Performance Through Servant Leadership. Journal of Business Inquiry: Research, Education, and Application, 9(1), 74–88.

Nwogu, O. (2004). The Role of Follower Self-esteem, Emotional Intelligence and Attributions on Organizational Effectiveness. In The 2004 Proceedings of the Servant Leadership Roundtable. Regent University.

Russell, R. F., & Stone, A. G. (2002). A Review of Servant Leadership Attributes: Developing a Practical Model. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23(3), 145–157.

Sendjay, S. (2003). Development and Validation of Servant Leadership Behavior Scale. In Proceeding of Servant Leadership Research Roundtable.

Shahzad, R., Rizvi, R. A., Waheed, A., Khan, I., Usman, S. M., Nazier, N., & Kiyani, T. M. (2013). Linking Servant Leadership with Organizational Citizenship Behavior Through Trust: an Embryonic Structural Modeling Approach. European Journal of Social Sciences, 39(2), 273–284.

Smith, J. A., & Rayment, J. J. (2007). The Global SMP Fitness Framework: A Guide for Leaders Exploring the Relevance of Spirituality in The Workplace. Management Decision, 45(2), 217–234.

Spencer, J. L. (2007). The New Frontier of Servant Leadership. In The Servant Leadership Research Roundtable. Regent University.

Van Meter, R., Chonko, L. B., Grisaffe, D. B., & Goad, E. A. (2016). In Search of Clarity on Servant Leadership: Domain Specification and Reconceptualization. AMS Review, 6(1–2), 59–78.

Walumbwa, F. O., Mayer, D. M., Wang, P., Wang, H., Workman, K., & Christensen, A. L. (2011). Linking Ethical Leadership to Employee Performance: The Roles of Leader–Member Exchange, Self-Efficacy, and Organizational Identification. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 115(2), 204–213.

Wang, S., & Noe, R. A. (2010). Knowledge Sharing: A Review and Directions for Future Research. Human Resource Management Review, 20(2), 115–131. 2009.10.001

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.15408/etk.v18i1.6190


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 ETIKONOMI