Correlation Between Allergy History in Family and Allergy Manifestation in School Age Children

Fitria Mahrunnisa, Sumadiono Sumadiono, Sri Mulatsih


Background: Asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis are influenced by both genetic factor and environtment factors. Based on family history of allergy, allergic trace cards can identify the level of allergic risk in children. The relationship between family history of allergy and manifestation of allergic disease as a single allergy disease and allergic multimorbidity still need to be explored. The objective of this study was to identify the associations between family history of allergic disease and manifestation of allergic disease in school-age children.

Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study on school age children with 6-13 years old at eight elementary schools in Yogyakarta. Family history of allergy was defined as reported asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis in a parent or sibling and classified the level of allergic risk based on allergic trace cards. Subjects were questioned by standardized ISAAC questionnaire. The relationship between the two was analyzed by the Chi-squared analysis to assess the prevalence ratio (PR).

Results: A total of 272 children with an average age of 8.4 years, allergic manifestations occurred more as multimorbidity (53%) with the highest incidence of RA+asthma (9%) compared with one allergic disease (47%) with the highest incidence of RA (11%). There was a significant relationship between family history of allergy and all manifestations of allergic disease with an increased risk of developing allergies by 3.3 (PR 3.3; 95% CI 2.3-4.8) and 2.8 times (PR 2.8; IK95% 1.8-4.3) in the moderate and high-risk score group. Asthma, RA and DA have a risk for coexistence with 2 other diseases of 2.5 (RP 2.5 IK95%; 1.9-3), 2.25 (PR 2.25 IK95%; 1.7 -3) and 1.9 times (PR 2.5 IK95%; 1.45-2.4).

Conclusion: Family history of allergic disease is a risk factors for the development of allergic manifestation both a single allergic disease and multimobidity.


allergy, family history, multimorbidity, children

Full Text:



Akdis, C. A., & Sicherer, S. H. (2019). Allergy and the Immunologic Basis of Atopic Disease. In Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 2-Volume Set (Twenty-First Edition).

Pols, D., Wartna, J., van Alphen, E., Moed, H., Rasenberg, N., Bindels, P. and Bohnen, A. (2015). Interrelationships between Atopic Disorders in Children: A Meta-Analysis Based on ISAAC Questionnaires. PLOS ONE, 10(7), p.e0131869.

Sumadiono, Muktiarti, D., Setiawan, B., Irsa, L., Dwi, K., & Ghrahani, R. 2014. Rekomendasi Pencegahan Primer Penyakit Alergi pada Anak: UKK Alergi Imunologi, Ikatan Dokter Anak Indonesia.

Damanik ND. 2014. Hubungan Antara Skor Deteksi Dini Risiko Alergi Dengan Kejadian Dermatitis Atopi Pada Anak. Tesis. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Ilmu Kedokteran klinik MS-PPDS Ilmu Kesehatan Anak Universitas Gadjah Mada

Mallol, J., Crane, J., von Mutius, E., Odhiambo, J., Keil, U. and Stewart, A. (2013). The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Three: A global synthesis. Allergologia et Immunopathologia, 41(2), pp.73-85.

Gough, H., Grabenhenrich, L., Reich, A., Eckers, N., Nitsche, O., Schramm, D., Beschorner, J., Hoffmann, U., Schuster, A., Bauer, C., Forster, J., Zepp, F., Lee, Y., Bergmann, R., Bergmann, K., Wahn, U., Lau, S. and Keil, T. (2015). Allergic multimorbidity of asthma, rhinitis and eczema over 20 years in the German birth cohort MAS. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 26(5), pp.431-437

Soegiarto, G., Abdullah, M., Damayanti, L., Suseno, A. and Effendi, C. 2019. The prevalence of allergic diseases in school children of metropolitan city in Indonesia shows a similar pattern to that of developed countries. Asia Pacific Allergy, 9(2).

Weninggalih, E., Kartasasmita, C. and Setiabudiawan, B. (2019). Hubungan Antara Atopi dengan Riwayat Penyakit Alergi dalam Keluarga dan Manifestasi Penyakit Alergi pada Balita. Bagian Ilmu Kesehatan Anak Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran/ Rumah Sakit Hasan Sadikin, Bandung, pp.2-5.

Anggraeni, M., Dewi, K., Wati, K., & Tangking, K. (2014). Using family atopy score to identify the risk of atopic dermatitis in infants. 54(6), 330–337.

Vandenplast Y, Abuabat A, Al-Hammadi S, Aly GS, Miqdady MS, SShaaban SY, Torbey PH. 2014. Middle East Consensus Statement on the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Management of Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy, Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr, 17 (2), 61-73.

Bousquet Jean, Khaltaev Nikolai, Cruz Alvaro A, Judah Denburg, Wytske Fokkens, Alkis Togias, Torsten Zuberbier, Carlos Baena-Cagnani, G Walter Canonica, Chris van Weel, Ioana Agache, Nadia Aït-Khaled, Claus Bachert, Michael Blaiss, Sergio Bonini, Louis-P, H. Z. ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) 2008 Update. Social Sciences, 1–196.

Ziyab, A. 2017. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Asthma, Rhinitis, and Eczema and Their Multimorbidity among Young Adults in Kuwait: A Cross-Sectional Study. BioMed Research International, 2017, pp.1-10.

Holloway J W. 2014. Genetics and Epigenetics of Allergic Diseases and Asthma. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice, 22, 343-363

Ownby DR. Environmental factors versus genetic determinants of childhood inhalants allergies. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990;86:279-87.

Leffler, J., Stumbles, P. and Strickland, D. (2018). Immunological Processes Driving IgE Sensitisation and Disease Development in Males and Females. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(6), p.1554.

Pinart M, Benet M, Annesi-Maesano I, et al. Comorbidity of eczema, rhinitis, and asthma in IgE-sensitised and non-IgE- sensitised children: an international population-based cohort study. Lancet Respir Med 2014: 2: 131–40

DOI: Abstract - 0 PDF - 0


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Indexed By: