Religiosity and Entrepreneurial Intention

Buddi Wibowo


Religion and economic activities relationship is an evolving research topic in economics. Secular world-view usually put a side religiosity as just one of non-economic factors. However, religiosity is an important individual characteristic that has significant influence in shaping daily life decisions. Entrepreneurial intentions among undergraduates students need deeper study in order to reveal entrepreneurial intention formation model, intention determinant variables, how those variables interact each other, and how individual religiosity affect intention formation process and intention strength level. Based on Structural Equation Model, personal attitudes and social norms are the most important variables influencing entrepreneurial intentions, besides perceived behavioral control. These three variables are the most important entrepreneurial intentions determinant variable that direcly are influenced by personal beliefs about these factors. Religiosity plays an important role in entrepreneurial intention. Empirical test show that religious student group has stronger personal attitude towards entrepreneurial activity dan perceived behavior control compared to irreligious group.

DOI: 10.15408/etk.v16i2.4963


entrepreneurial intention; beliefs; attitudes; religiosity

Full Text:



Ajzen, I. (1991). The Theory of Planned Behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 50(2): 179–211.

Ajzen, I., Csasch, C., & Flood, M. G. (2009). From intentions to behavior: Implementation intention, commitment, and conscientiousness. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(6): 1356–1372

Alkire, S. (2006). Religion and development. In D. A. Clarke (Ed.), The Elgar companion to development studies (pp. 502–509). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Barnir, A., Watson, W. E., & Hutchins, H. M. (2011). Mediation and Moderated Mediation in the Relationship among Role Models, Self-efficacy, Entrepreneurial Career Intention, and Gender. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 41(2): 270–297.

Barro, R. J., & McCleary, R. M. (2003). Religion and economic growth. NBER working paper 9682. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Bosma, N., Hessels, J., Schutjens, V., Van Praag, M., & Verheul, I. (2012). Entrepreneurship and Role Models. Journal of Economic Psychology. 33(2): 410–424.

Budig, M. (2006). Intersections on the Road to Self-employment: Gender, Family and Occupational Class. Social Forces. 84(4): 2223–2239.

Carree, M., & Thurik, R. (2006). Understanding the Role of Entrepreneurship for Economic Growth. In Carree, M.A. & A. R. Thurik (Eds.). The Handbook of entrepreneurship and economic growth. Cheltenham, UK & Northampton, MA, US: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.

Carsrud, A., & Brännback, M. (2011). Entrepreneurial motivations: What do we still need to know? Journal of Small Business Management, 49(1): 9–26.

Costa, P. T., Terracciano, A., & McCrae, R. R. (2001). Gender Differences in Personality Traits Across Cultures: Robust and Surprising Findings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 81(2): 322–331.

Deneulin, S., & Rakodi, C. (2011). Revisiting Religion: Development Studies Thirty Years On”. World Development. 39(1): 45–54.

Edelman, L. F., Brush, C. G., Manolova, T. S., & Greene, P. G. (2010). Start-up Motivations and Growth Intentions of Minority Nascent Entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Management. 48(2): 174–196.

Geertz, Clifford. (2014). Agama Jawa: Abangan, Santri, Priyayi dalam Kebudayaan Jawa. Depok: Komunitas Bambu.

Guiso, L., Sapienza, P, and Zingales, L. (2001). People’s opium? Religion and Economic Attitudes. Journal of Monetary Economics. 50: 225–282

Habermas, J. (2006). Religion in the Public Sphere. European Journal of Philosophy. 14(1): 1-25.

Hartman, H., & Hartman, M. (2008). How Undergraduate Engineering Students Perceive Women’s (and Men’s) Problems in Science, Math and Engineering. Sex Roles. 58(3–4): 251–265.

Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J. & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind (Rev. 3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Kelley, D.J., Singer, S., & Herrington, M. (2012). The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: 2011 Global Report. Global Entrepreneurship Research Association. Available from: Accessed on January 14, 2017.

Kolvereid, L., & Isaksen, E. (2006). New Business Start-up and Subsequent Entry into Self-Employment. Journal of Business Venturing. 21(6): 866–885.

Laspita, S., Breugst, N., Heblich, S., & Patzelt, H. (2012). Intergenerational Transmission of Entrepreneurial Intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(4): 414–435

Marx, K. (1844). Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right: Introduction. In: The Marx–Engels Reader, Robert C. Tucker (Ed.), Norton, New York, 2nd edition, 1978, 53–65. First published in Deutsch-Franz.osische Jahrb.ucher.

McDonald, R. P., & Ho, M. H. (2002). Principles and Practice in Reporting Structural Equation Analyses. Psychological Methods. 7(1): 64–82.

Muller, T. (2009). Religiosity and Attitudes Towards The Involvement of Religious Leaders in Politics: A Multilevel-Analysis of 55 Societies. World Values Research. 2(1): 1–29.

Mueller, S. L., & Dato-on, M. C. (2013). A Cross Cultural Study of Gender-Role Orientation and Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. 9(1): 1–20.

Pryor, F. L. (2007). The Economic Impact of Islam on Developing Countries. World Development. 35(11): 1815–1835.

Shinnar, R. S., Giacomin, O., & Janssen, F. (2012). Entrepreneurial Perceptions and Intentions: The Role of Gender and Culture. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 36(3): 465–493.

Van Gelderen, M., Brand, M., van Praag, M., Bodewes, W., Poutsma, E., & van Gils, A. (2008). Explaining Entrepreneurial Intentions by Means of The Theory of Planned Behavior. Career Development International. 13(6): 538–559.

Verheul, I., Thurik, R., & Grilo, I. (2009). Explaining Preferences and Actual Involvement in Self-employment: New Insights into The Role of Gender. Proceeding at The Academy of Management Conference, August 7–11, Chicago, Ill, USA.

Verheul, I., Thurik, R., Grilo, I., & van der Zwan, P. (2012). Explaining Preferences and Actual Involvement in Self-employment: Gender and the Entrepreneurial personality. Journal of Economic Psychology. 33(2): 325–341.

Weber, M. (1905). The Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism. London: Unwin.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Hasil gambar untuk doaj

/public/site/images/rianto-arif/logogaruda-kecil_94 ISJD LIPI Academic Keyoa-library CrossRefMoraRefBASE-Search OAJI Open Archives Initiative

Hasil gambar untuk

View My Stats


E-ISSN: 2461-0771 P-ISSN: 1412-8969 Free counters!


This work is licensed under CC BY-SA

© All rights reserved 2015.