The Happiness of the Sandwich Generation in Bali: the Roles of Family, Social, and Balinese Culture

Ni Komang Ayu Yuniari, Ida Ayu Nyoman Saskara


The sandwich generation in Bali, especially Gianyar, which is still thick with its culture, has a dual role in the family, as caregivers for children and parents, breadwinners, and is actively involved in community activities. This study aims to analyze the influence of cultural norms in moderating the effect of family roles and social support on the happiness of the sandwich generation. The samples were 203 generations of sandwiches obtained through accidental sampling techniques and analyzed using Moderated Regression Analysis (MRA). The results showed that cultural norms, social support, and family roles significantly influence the happiness of the sandwich generation. Meanwhile, cultural norms were not variables that moderate the effect of family roles and social support on the happiness of the sandwich generation. This study proposed two central policies to break the sandwich generation chain in Gianyar Regency: socializing the importance of financial literacy so that in the future, a person does not depend on his child for life and forming a parent empowerment group to reduce the burden of the sandwich generation.

JEL Classification: M14, J12, I31, L31

How to Cite:

Yuniari, N. K. A., & Saskara, I. A. N., (2023). Happiness of the Sandwich Generation in Bali: the Role of Family, Social and Balinese Culture. Signifikan: Jurnal Ilmu Ekonomi, 12(2), 355-370. v12i2.32315.


cultural norms; family roles; happiness; social support


Ahmad, Mumtaz Bt, Maon, S. N. B., Mansor, M. N. M., & Daud, N. M. (2018). The Academician’s Sandwich Generation: Balancing Between Work And Family Through Social Support. The Turkish Online Journal of Design, Art and Communication - TOJDAC, September(Special Edition), 1481–1487.

Ahmad, Mumtaz Bte, Maon, S. N. B., Mansor, M. N. M., & Daud, N. M. (2016). Quality Of Life Sandwich Generation: A Review Of The Literature. Proceedings of the 28th International Business Information Management Association Conference-Vision 2020: Innovation Management, Development Sustainability, and Competitive Economic Growth, 4499–4504.

Baihaqi, F.A. (2022). Funny Line Catholicism: Building Bridges For Multiculturalism Dialogue. Journal of Religious Studies, 3(1), 50–61.

Bimonte, S., Bosco, L., and Stabile, A. (2022). In Virus Veritas: Lockdown And Happiness Under Pandemic. Social Indic. Res. Aug 164, 823–842. doi: 10.1007/s11205-022-02974-x

Cabanas, E., and Gonzalez-Lamas, J. (2022). Varieties Of Happiness: Mapping Lay Conceptualizations Of Happiness In A Spanish Sample. Psychol. Rep. Oct 8:00332941221133011. doi: 10.1177/00332941221133011

Cheng, Z., King, S. P., Smyth, R., & Wang, H. (2016). Housing Property Rights And Subjective Wellbeing In Urban China. European Journal of Political Economy, 45, 160–174.

Daniels, L. A. (2019). Feeding Practices And Parenting: A Pathway To Child Health And Family Happiness. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 74, 29–42. doi: 10.1159/000499145

Delle Fave, A., Brdar, I., Wissing, M. P., Araujo, U., Solano, A. C., Freire, T. (2016). Lay Definitions Of Happiness Across Nations: The Primacy Of Inner Harmony And Relational Connectedness. Front. Psychol. 7:30. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00030

Dewi, S.K.S & Wiksuana, I.G.B. (2022). The Factors Analysis of Financial Conditions of Working Women Sandwich Generation. Signifikan: Jurnal Ilmu Ekonomi, 11(2), 299-318.

Doh, Y. Y., and Chung, J.-B. (2020). What Types Of Happiness Do Korean Adults Pursue?–Comparison Of Seven Happiness Types. International Journal Environment Res. Public Health 17:1502. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17051502

Evans, K.L., Millsteed, J., Richmond, J.E., Falkmer, M., Falkmer, T., Girdler, S.J. (2016). Working Sandwich Generation Women Utilize Strategies within and between Roles to Achieve Role Balance. Plos One.

Fuchsman, K. (2016). The Age Of Miracle And Wonders: Paul Simon And The Changing American Dream. Journal Psychohist. 43, 288–301.

Greyling, T., Rossouw, S., and Adhikari, T. (2021). The Good, The Bad And The Ugly Of Lockdowns During Pandemic. Plos One 16:e0245546. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0245546

Guo, Q., Liu, Z., Li, X., and Qiao, X. (2018). Indulgence And Long Term Orientation Influence Prosocial Behavior At National Level. Front. Psychol. 9:1798. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01798

Gutierrez-Cobo, M. J., Megias-Robles, A., Gomez-Leal, R., Cabello, R., and Fernandez-Berrocal, P. (2021). Is It Possible To Be Happy? A Longitudinal Study Of The Role Of The Emotional Regulation Strategies And Pleasant Activities In Happiness. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18:3211. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18063211

Hartini, N. (2022). Relationship Between Caregiver Burden and Subjective Well-Being in Mothers of the Sandwich Generation. Journal of Psychology and Health Sciences. Vol 1 Issue 2. Page: 97-106

Henseke, G., Green, F., and Schoon, I. (2022). Subjective Well-Being In The Second Phase Of The Pandemic. Journal Youth Adolesc. 51, 1679–1692. doi: 10.1007/s10964-022-01648-8

Hopps, M., Iadeluca, L., McDonald, M., & Makinson, G. T. (2017). The burden of family caregiving in the United States: work productivity, health care resource utilization, and mental health among employed adults. J Multidiscip Healthc, Dec 6(10), 437–444.

Huang, Z., Du, X., & Yu, X. (2017). Home Ownership And Residential Satisfaction: Evidence From Hangzhou, China. Habitat International, 49, 74–83.

Indraswari, D.P. (2019). Subjective Well-Being In Terms Of Marital Quality On Married Couple In Special Region Of Yogyakarta. Psychology Student Journal No 1 Ossue 1 2019: 159-167

Kusumaningrum, F. A. (2018). Generasi Sandwich: Beban Pengasuhan dan Dukungan Sosial pada Wanita Bekerja. Psikologika: Jurnal Pemikiran Dan Penelitian Psikologi, 23(2), 109–120.

Liu, L., du Toit, M., and Weidemann, G. (2021). Infants Are Sensitive To Cultural Differences In Emotions At 11 Months. PLoS One 16:e0257655. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0257655

Maon, S. N., Mansor, M. N., Som, R. M., Ahmad, M., & Shakri, S. A. (2016). Presenteeism Among Academicians At Public Universities In Malaysia. Advanced Science Letters, 22(5), 1606–1609.

Matsunaga, M., Masuda, T., Ishii, K., Ohtsubo, Y., Noguchi, Y., Ochi, M., et al. (2018). Culture And Cannabinoid Gene Polymorphism Interact To Influence The Perception Of Happiness. PLoS One 13:e209552. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0209552

Migliaccio, J. N. (2019). Millennials — the Newest “ Club Sandwich Generation —” Inherit the “Sandwich Generation". DepartementS.

Noor, S., & Isa, F. M. (2020). Malaysian Sandwich Generation Issues and Challenges in Elderly Parents Care. International and Multidiciplinary Journal in Social Sciences, 9(3), 289–312.

Phua, K. H., Goh, L. G., & Yap, M. T. (2019). Ageing in Asia: Contemporary Trends and Policy Issues (World Scientific Ageing in Asia). WSPC.

Purwaningsih, V.T. (2021). Can Assets Determine Family Happiness?. Journal of Economics Research and Social Sciences, Vol 5 Issue 2, 156-166.

Rahman, Amelia & Turro Seltris Wongkaren. (2022). The Effect of Social Capital on the Happiness of the Sandwich Generation in Indonesia. Population Journal. Volume 17 No. 2 pp: 143-160. DOI: 10.14203/jki.v17i2.675

Rajhans, P., Altvater-Mackensen, N., Vaish, A., and Grossmann, T. (2016). Children’s Altruistic Behavior In Context: The Role Of Emotional Responsiveness And Culture. Sci. Rep. 6:24089. doi: 10.1038/srep24089

Rari, F.P., Jamalludin., Nurokhmah, P. (2022). Comparison of Happiness Levels Between Sandwich Generations and Non-Sandwich Generations. Journal of Research and Development. Vol 6 Issue 1. page: 1-13

Reyes-Garcia, V., Gallois, S., Pyhala, A., Diaz-Reviriego, I., Fernandez-Llamazares, A., Galbraith, E., (2021). Happy Just Because. A Cross-Cultural Study On Subjective Wellbeing In Three Indigenous Societies. PLoS One 16:e0251551. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0251551

Rose, N., Manning, N., Bentall, R., Bhui, K., Burgess, R., Carr, S., et al. (2020). The Social Underpinnings Of Mental Distress In The Time Of Pandemic – Time For Urgent Action. Wellcome Open Res. 5:166. doi: 10.12688/wellcomeopenres.16123.1

Schleider, J. L., Ginsburg, G. S., Keeton, C. P., Weisz, J. R., Birmaher, B., Kendall, P. C., Piacentini, J., Sherrill, J., & Walkupg, J. T. (2015). Parental psychopathology and treatment outcome for anxious youth: Roles of family functioning and caregiver strain. J Consult Clin Psychol, 83(1), 213–224.

Shapouri, S. (2022). Of Germs And Culture; Parasite Stress As The Origin Of Individualism-Collectivism. Evol. Psychol. Sci. Aug 3, 1–8. doi: 10.1007/s40806-022-00335-y

Shevlin, M., Butter, S., McBride, O., Murphy, J., Gibson-Miller, J., Hartman, T. K., et al. (2021). Refuting The Myth Of A ‘Tsunami’ Of Mental Ill-Health In Populations Affected: Evidence That Response To The Pandemic Is Heterogeneous, Not Homogeneous. Psychol. Med. Apr 20, 1–9. doi: 10.1017/S0033291721001665

Song, Y., Broekhuizen, M. L., and Dubas, J. S. (2020). Happy Little Benefactor: Prosocial Behaviors Promote Happiness In Young Children From Two Cultures. Front. Psychol. 11:1398. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01398

Su, Y., Rao, W., Li, M., Caron, G., D’Arcy, C., and Meng, X. (2022). Prevalence Of Loneliness And Social Isolation Among Older Adults During The COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis. Int. Psychogeriatr. Mar 31, 1–13. doi: 10.1017/S1041610222000199

Sudarji, S., Panggabean, H., & Marta, R. F. (2022). Challenges of the sandwich generation: Stress and coping strategy of the multigenerational care. Indigenous: Journal of Scientific Psychology, 7(3). 262-274 doi:

Sulastri, T & Kusuma, P. (2022). The Meaning Of Happiness In Generation Z. Journal of Social and Educational Studies Vol.2, No. 2, pp: 183-19

Suwarna, B., Dewabrata, W., Leba, E. E., Tunggal, N., & Irawati, D. (2022). Generasi ”Sandwich” Perlu Dukungan. Kompas Nusantara.

Tsegai, D., Pangaribowo, E. H., & Sukamdi. (2018). Women’s Bargaining Power And Household Expenditure In Indonesia: The Role Of Gender-Differentiated Assets And Social Capital. GeoJournal, 84(4), 939–960.

Wijesinghe, C. J., Cunningham, N., Fonseka, P., Hewage, C. G., & Østbye, T. (2015). Factors associated with caregiver burden among caregivers of children with cerebral palsy in Sri Lanka. Asia Pac J Public Health, 27(1), 85–95.

Wilai N., Jumpee, G., Siranee K. & Pornsiri, P. (2020). Family Happiness Among People In A Southeast Asian City:Grounded Theory Study. Nurs Health Sci. 2020; 22 :292–299. DOI: 10.1111/nhs.12688

Zhahira, K. B., & Utami, E.D. (2017). Factors Affecting the Happiness Level of the Yogyakarta Society in 2017. Seminar Nasional Official Statistics 2021 PP: 753-761

Zhang, F., Zhang, C., & Hudson, J. (2018). Housing Conditions And Life Satisfaction In Urban China. Cities, 81, 35–44.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v12i2.32315


  • There are currently no refbacks.