Pengaruh Self-Compassion, Religiusitas, Support Group Dan Pendapatan Terhadap Subjective Well-Being Orang Tua Anak Tunagrahita

Risa Dwi Ratnasari, Neneng Tati Sumiati


Subjective well-being (SWB) is an evaluation of a person's cognitive and affective life. Evaluation of one's life in subjective well-being includes a positive emotional reaction to the occurrence in life, as well as the lack of negative emotional charge of cognition ratings on satisfaction and fulfillment in life (Diener, Lucas, & Oishi, 2005). This study was condu

cted to determine the influence of self-compassion, religiosity, support group and pendapatan on subjective well-being of parents of children with mental retardation. Researcher adapting various instrument such as Diener's SWB instrument (1985; 2010), Neff's self-compassion instrument (2003), and Huber’s religiosity instrument (2012). The research method used a non-probability sampling with accidental sampling technique. Participants in this study amounted to 209 parents. The researcher use Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) as construct validity test. The results showed that the four dimensions, namely self-compassion, religiosity,support group and pendapatan has a significant effect on subjective well-being of parents who have children with mental retardation. The proportion of the overall independent variables towards SWB amounted to 28.8% with four significant variables that self-compassion, religiosity in aspects of religious knowledge, religious experience and household income.


Subjective Well-Being (SWB) adalah evaluasi kognitif dan afektif seseorang terhadap kehidupannya. Evaluasi kehidupan seseorang dalam subjective well-being mencakup reaksi emosi positif terhadap kejadian dalam hidup, rendahnya muatan emosi negatif sebagaimana penilaian kognisi atas kepuasan dan pemenuhan hidup (Diener, Lucas, & Oishi, 2005). Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh self-compassion, religiusitas, affiliasi support group dan pendapatan terhadap subjective well-being orangtua yang memiliki anak dengan tunagrahita. Peneliti mengadaptasi instrumen SWB diener (1985; 2010), untuk self-compassion mengadaptasi instrumen Neff (2003), dan untuk religiusitas mengadaptasi instrumen Hubber (2012). Metode penelitian menggunakan non-probability samplingdengan teknik accidental sampling.Partisipan dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 209 orang tua.Uji validitas konstruk menggunakan tekhnik CFA. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa empat dimensi yakni self-compassion, religiusitas (pengetahuan keagamaan, pengalaman keagamaan), affiliasi support group dan pendapatan memiliki pangaruh yang signifikan terhadap subjective well-being orangtua yang memiliki anak dengan tunagrahita. Proporsi independent variable secara keseluruhan terhadap SWB adalah sebesar 28.8% dengan empat variabel signifikan yakni self-compassion, religiusitas di aspek pengetahuan keagamaan, pengalaman keagamaan dan pendapatan rumah tangga.


DOI: 10.15408/jp3i.v6i1.8153


Subjective well-being, self-compassion, religiosity, support group, pendapatan


Abdullah, N. (2013). Mengenal Anak Berkebutuhan Khusus. MAGISTRA, 5(86), 1-10.

Adhityani, E. (2014). Pengaruh Optimisme,Religiusitas, dan Dukungan Sosial Terhadap subjective well-being orang tua yang memiliki anak ASD Autism Spectrum Disorder). Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, 1-20.

Ahuvia, A. C., & Friedman, D. C. (1998). Income, consumption, and subjective well-being: Towar a composite macro marketing model. Journal of macromarketing, 18(2), 153 168.doi:10.1177/0276146798018 0207.

Anggraini, R. R. (2011). Persepsi Orang tua Terhadap Anak Berkebutuhan. Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Khusus vol.1,2013,Pg 258-265.

Benjak, T., Vuletić Mavrinac, G., & Pavić Šimetin, I. (2009). Comparative Study on Self perceived Health of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Parents of Nondisabled Children in Croatia. Croatianmedical journal, 50(4), 403-409. doi: 10.3325/cmj.2009.50.403.

Boromand, N., Narimani, M., & Mosazadeh, T. (2014). Comparing the psychological well being factors among the parents of the mentally retarded children with those of the normal children. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, (21), 1-8.. doi: 10.18052/

Calvisi, D., & Dibble, J. (2011). Well-being in older adults in three different . Grand Valley State University Volume 32, 2016.

Clifford, T. (2011). Support groups for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Predictors and . thesis, 35. Colón-Bacó, E. (2010). The strength of religious beliefs is important for subjective well-being. Undergraduate economic review, 6(1), 11.Retrieved from

Cramm, J.M, & Nieboer, A.P. (2011). Psychological well-being of caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities: Using parental stress as a mediating factor. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 15(2), 101–113. doi:10.1177/1744629511410922

Degutis, M., & Urbonavicius, S. (2013). Determinants of subjective wellbeing in Lithuania. Engineering Economics, 24(2), 111-118. doi:10.1007/s11136 014-0694-8

Desmet, P. M. A., & Pohlmeyer, A. E. (2013). Positive design: An introduction to design for subjective well-being. International Journal of Design, 7(3), 5-19

Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological bulletin Vol. 95, No. 3, 1984, 542-565.

Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. E. (1999). Subjective well- being: Threedecades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276, 302.

Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2009). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and life satisfaction. Oxford handbook ofpositive psychology, 2, 187 194.

Diener, E., & Chan, M. Y. (2011). Happy people live longer: Subjective well‐being contributes to health and longevity. Applied Psychology: Health and Well‐Being, 3(1), 1 43. doi: 10.1111/j.1758 0854.2010.01045.x

Diener, E., Tay, L., & Oishi, S. (2013). Rising income and the subjective well being of nations. Journal of personality and social psychology, 137, 267.doi:10.1037/a0030487

Drakulić, A. M. (2012). A phenomenological perspective on subjective well-being: From myth to science. Psychiatria Danubina, 24(1.), 31-37.

English, E. (2013). The effect of community participation on subjective well-being in community dwelling elders. Honors Projects, 1-22.

Hall, C. W., Row, K. A., Wuensch, K. L., & Godley, K. R. (2013). The role of self compassion in physical and psychological well-being. The Journal of psychology, 147(4), 311-323.

Huber, S., & Huber, O. W. (2012). The centrality of religiosity scale (CRS). Religions, 3(3), 710, 724.doi:10.3390/rel3030710

Jacobson, J. W., Mulick, J. A., & Rojahn, J. (2007). Handbook of Intellectual and Develpmental Disability. New York: Springer Science+Business Media.

Luhmann, M., Hofmann, W., Eid, M., & Lucas, R. E. (2013). Subjective well-being and Adaptation to Life Events: A Meta-. J Pers Soc Psycho, 3, 592-615. doi: 10.1037/a0025948

Matson, J. L. (2007). Handbook of Assessment in Persons with Intellectual Disability. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Elsevier Inc.

Mattson, M., & Gibb, H. J. (2011). Linking health communication with social support. in:Health as Communication nexus: A Service-learning approach. Dubuqu: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.

Neff, K. D. (2003). The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and identity, 2(3), 223-250 Volume 2, 2003.

Neff, K. (2003). Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and identity, 2(2), 85-101.

Neff, K. D. (2004). Self-compassion and psychological well-being Constructivism in the human sciences, 9(2), 27-37.

Neff, K. D. (2011). Self‐compassion, self‐esteem, and well‐being. Social and personality psychology compassion, 5(1), 1-12.

Neff, K. D. (2012). The science of self compassion. In C. Germer & R. Siegel (Eds.), Compassion and Wisdom in Psychotherapy. 79-92

Neff, K. D., & Faso, D. J. (2015). Self compassion and well-being in parents of children with autism. Mindfulness, 6(4), 938, 947.doi:10.1007/s12671-014 0359-2

Neff, K. D. (2016). The self-compassion scale is a valid and theoretically coherent measure of self compassion. Mindfulness, 7(1), 264, 274. 10.1007/s12671 015-0479-3

NICHCY. (2011, january). Parent to Parents Support. 3nd edition, p. 2.

Nikmat, A. W., Ahmad, M., Oon, N., & Razali, S. (2008). Stress and psychological wellbeing among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 9(2), 65-72.

Mbugua, M. N., Kuria, M. W., & Ndetei, D. M. (2011). The prevalence of depression among family caregivers of children with intellectual disability in a rural setting in Kenya. International journal of family medicine, 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/534513

O’Hara, J., McCarthy, J., & Bouras, N. (2010). Intellectual Disability and Ill Health. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pahlevi, Reza. (2016). Terbukti... "Down Syndrome" Tak Benamkan Mimpi Stephanie!. Diunduh tanggal 12 April 2016 dari KOMPAS.COM: Syndrome.Tak.Benamkan.Mimpi. stephanie.

Paloutzian, R., & Santrock, J. (2005). Handbook Of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. London: The Guildford Press.

Parnami, M., Mittal, U., & Hingar, A. (2013). Impact of religiosity on subjective well-being in various groups: A comparative study. Indian Journal of Health and Wellbeing, 4(4), 903 908.

Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (1993). Review of the satisfaction with life scale Psychological assessment, 5(2), 164 172.doi: 10.1007/s11205 012-0076-

Raina, P., O'Donnell, M., Rosenbaum, P., Brehaut, J., Walter, S. D., Russell, D., & Wood, E. (2005). The health and well-being of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy. Pediatrics, 115(6), 626-636. doi: 10.1542/peds.2004-1689

Republik Indonesia. 1945. Undang-Undang Dasar Tahun 1945 Pasal 31 ayat 1 Tentang Hak dan Kewajiban dalam Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. Jakarta : Negara Republik Indonesia.

Republik Indonesia. 2011. Undang-Undang No 10 Tahun 2011 Tentang Kebijakan Penanganan Anank Berkebutuhan Khusus. Jakarta Menteri Negara Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Perlindungan Anak.

RIMANEWS. (2014). Perjuangan Ibu Bersama Anak-anak Berkebutuhan Khusus. Diunduh tanggal 6 Maret 2016 dari RIMANEWS:

Ritzema, A. M., & Sladeczek, I. E. (2011). Stres in Parents of Children with Developmental Disabilities over Time. Journal on Developmental Disability , 27,21-34. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2006.00933

Sudjana, I. (2011, Agustus Senin). Sosial Budaya. Diunduh tanggal 7 Maret 2016 dari Bale Bengong: anyar/2011/08/15/anak-saya-autis-tapi-dia-.

Umar, J. (2011). Analisis konfirmatori. Bahan ajar peminatan psikometri, Tidak di Publikasikan. = Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Islam Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.

Watson, D., Pichler, F., & Wallace, C. (2010). Subjective well-being in Europe. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

Werner, S., & Shulman, C. (2013). Subjective well-being among family caregivers of individuals with developmental disabilities: the role of affiliate stigma and psychosocial moderating variables. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34 (11), 4103-4114. doi: 01308.029

Wolbring, G. (2013). Subjective wellbeing, body-related ability expectations andpeace. International Journal of Peace Studies, 29-42.

Yoon, E., & Lee, R. M. (2010). Importance of Social Connectedness as a Moderator in Korean Immigrants Subjective Well-being. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 93-105. doi:10.1037/a0019964.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.15408/jp3i.v6i1.8153


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Risa Dwi Ratnasari, Neneng Tati Sumiati

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.