Analysis of Food consumed by Indonesian Moslem Hajj Pilgrims: Complete and Incomplete Nutrition

Alfiah Alfiah, Rr. Ayu Fitri Hapsari, Endah Wulandari

Abstract


Background.The Mabrur hajj is the goal of carrying out hajj. Hajj pilgrims during the hajj journey are expected to have physical readiness besides financial and security. Health problems while in Mecca such as: congested congregation, population diversity, climate, and far from health facilities arises the possibility of various infections and non-infections. One of the physical readings is through the consumption of nutrients during the Hajj pilgrimage. This study analyzes the understanding of nutritional needs for health during the pilgrimage journey of Indonesia

Methods. The design of this study was conducted descriptively observing a quantitative approach by filling out a questionnaire. The number of respondents who filled out the questionnaire reached 231 people with the following profiles: 66% women; 71% of the productive age is 25-50 years.

Results:There are 71% of respondents consuming food with incomplete nutritional composition at every meal. However, most of the nutritional composition consumed and needed has been fulfilled. There are only a few types of fruit that are less liked because they are not accustomed to the tongue of the pilgrims. There are 55% pilgrims who prepare their own supplements and medicines

Conclusion: This shows the awareness of pilgrims to the need for macronutrients and micronutrients during the pilgrimage. It is necessary to educate the benefits of nutrition need to be done to reduce immunity, energy needs, physical health and religious approaches.


Keywords


Hajj, pilgrims, nutrients, supplements, physical

Full Text:

PDF

References


Asaad Shujaa and Sameer Alhamid. Health rsponse to hajj mass gathering from emergency perspective, narrative review. TJEM. 2015;15(4):172-176.

M Zulfa. Multidimensional phenomena of hajj: study of javanese pilgrims. IJIMS. 2015;5(1):135-162.

Suchul Kang, Jeremy S Pal, Elfatih AB Eltahir. Future Heat stress During Muslim Pilgrimage (Hajj) Projected to Exceed “Extreme Danger” levels. Geophysical Research Letters. 2019;46(16)10094-100

Razaq Raj and Bozoelos. Pilgrimage experience and consumtion of travel to the city of Makkah for hajj Ritual. IJRTP. 2015;3(1):38-45

Nadia Caidi. Pilgrimage to Hajj: An information Journey. IJIDI. 2019;3(1):44-76.

Abdul Rashid Gatrad and Aziz Sheikh. Hajj: Journey of a lifetime. BMJ. 2005;330:133-7

Razaq Raj and Bozoelos. Pilgrimage experience and consumtion of travel to the city of Makkah for hajj Ritual. IJRTP. 2015;3(1):38-45

Smaro Kokkinidou, David Peterson, Tama Bloch and Ashley Bronston. The important role of carbohydrates in the flavor, fuction, and formulation of oral nutritional supplements. Nutrients. 2018;10(6);742-752.

Jennifer Wismann and Darryn Willoughby. Gender differences in carbohydrate metabolism and carbohydrate loading. J Inter Society of Sports Nutrition. 2006;3(1):28-34.

Joram D Mul, Kristin I Stanford, Michael F Hirshman and Laurie J Goodyear. Exercise and regulation of carbohydrate metabolisme. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2015;135:17-37. Doi:10.1016/bs.pmbts.2025.07.020

Talat Makhmoor. The virtues of Hajj and its impact on the broader Muslim community. ResearchGate. 2017:1-6. DOI: 10.13140/TG.2.2.31955.48164

Donald K Layman, et al. Defining meal requirements for protein to optimize metabolic roles of amino acid. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101:1330S-8S

W Kyle Mitchell, et al. Human skeletal muscle protein metabolism responses to amino acid nutrition. Adv Nutr. 2016;7:8285-395 doi:10.3945/an.115011650

David O Kennedy. B vitamins and the brain: mechanisms, dose and efficacy. Nutrients. 2016;8(68):1-29

Zhiyi Huang, Yu Liu, Guangying Qi, David Brand and Song Guo Zheng. Role of Vitamin A in the Immune System. J Clin Med. 2018;7(258):1-16

Clare Gilbert. What is vitamin A and why do we need it ?. Eye health J.2013

Rodrigo Figueroa-mendez and Selva Rivas-Arancibia, Vitamin C in Health and Disease: Its Role in the Metabolism of Cells and Redoks State in the Brain. 2015;23(6-397):1-11

Saliha Rizvi, et al. The role of vitamin E in human health and some diseases. Sultan Qaboos University Med (Epub). 2014;14(2):157-165

David O Kennedy. B vitamins and the brain: mechanisms, dose and efficacy. Nutrients. 2016;8(68):1-29

A Metere and L Giacomelli. Absorption, metabolism and protective role af fruits and vegetables polyphenols against gastric cancer. European review for medical and pharmacological sciences. 2017;21:5850-58

Zhiyi Huang, Yu Liu, Guangying Qi, David Brand and Song Guo Zheng. Role of Vitamin A in the Immune System. J Clin Med. 2018;7(258):1-16

Otilia Bobis, et al. Comparative Studies on Chemical Composition of Two Conventional Bred and One Genetically Engineered Plum Fruits. BUASVMN-ASB. 2017; 74(2):1-8

Adam Drewnowski and Carmen Gomez-Carneros. Bitter taste, phytonutrients, and the consumer: e review. AJCN. 2000;72(6):1424-1434

Jenny Sunariani, Yuliati, and Bastari Aflah. Perbedaan Persepsi Pengecap Rasa Asin Antara Usia Subur dan Usia Lanjut. Majalah Ilmu Faal Indonesia. 2007;6(3):182-191.

Muhammad Ali Hashmi, Afsar Khan, Muhammad Hanif, Umar Farooq and Shagufta Perveen. Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Olea Europaea (Olive). Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015;541591:1-29

Caroline S Stokes and Frank Lammert. Vitamin D supplementation: less controversy, more guidance needed. F1000Research. 2017:1-8

Sara Quattrini, Barbara Pampaloni and Maria Lauisa Brandi. Natural mineral waters: chemical charcteristics and health effects. Clinical Cases in Meneral and Bone metabolism.2016;13(3):173-180

Purwita Wijaya Laksmi, Budi Wiweko, Rina Agustina,. A Novel Study on 521 Indonesian Pilgrims: Fluid Intake Significantly Contributes to Hydration Status. Advance Science Letters. 2017; 23: 7019-7022

DeAnn J Liska, Eunice Mah, T Brisbois, Pamela Barrios, L Baker and L Spriet . Narrative Review of hydration and selected health outcomes in the general population. Nutrients. 2019;11(70):1-29 doi:10.3390/nu11010070

Sara Quattrini, Barabara Pampaloni and Maria Luisa Brandi. Natural mineral waters: chemical charcteristics and health effects. Clinical Cases in Meneral and Bone metabolism.2016;13(3):173-180

Nauman Khalid, Asif Ahmad, Sumera Khalid, Anwar Ahmed and Muhammad Irfan. Mineral composition and health functionality of zanzam water. Inter J Food properties. 2014;17:661-677 doi: 10.1080/10942912.2012.660721




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15408/avicenna.v4i2.31740 Abstract - 0 PDF - 0

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

 

View My Stats