SKRINING KAPANG Aspergillus spp. PENGHASIL AFLATOKSIN PADA JAGUNG PIPILAN DI DAERAH BEKASI, JAWA BARAT

Dalia Sukmawati, Priyo Wahyudi, Sri Rahayu, Moersilah Moersilah, Tri Handayani, K. Yoswita Rustam, Sherly Indah Puspitasari

Abstract


Abstrak

Aflatoksin merupakan senyawa metabolit sekunder dari kapang Aspergillus flavus dan Aspergillus parasiticus yang dapat mengontaminasi bahan pangan atau pakan sehingga berbahaya bagi kesehatan hewan dan manusia. Kontaminasi kapang penghasil aflatoksin banyak ditemukan pada bahan pangan dan pakan yang berasal dari produk pertanian. Jagung merupakan salah satu produk pertanian yang mudah terkontaminasi oleh kapang penghasil aflatoksin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh isolat kapang Aspergillus spp. penghasil aflatoksin pada jagung pipilan yang dijual di sekitar Bekasi, Jawa Barat. Isolasi kapang dilakukan menggunakan metode dilution plating pada medium Dichloran-Glycerol. Hasil penelitian memperoleh 12 isolat kapang, dengan warna koloni hijau (J1, J2, J3, J4, J5, J6, J7, J9, J10, J12), hitam (J11), dan jingga (J8). Identifikasi dilakukan dengan cara mengamati morfologi kapang secara makroskopik dan mikroskopik pada medium Malt Extract Agar. Isolat kapang yang diduga memiliki kemiripan dengan A. flavus berjumlah 6 isolat, yaitu J1, J2, J4, J6, J10, dan J12. Selanjutnya dilakukan uji konfirmasi menggunakan medium selektif Aspergillus flavus dan parasiticus Agar. Terdapat 2 isolat kapang, yaitu J1 dan J4, yang menunjukkan pigmentasi sebalik koloni berwarna pada medium selektif AFPA. Isolat kapang yang ditemukan pada jagung pipilan diharapkan dapat memberikan informasi kepada petani dan peternak mengenai jenis kapang yang dapat menyebabkan kontaminasi pada jagung, sehingga mereka dapat menjaga dan meningkatkan kualitas jagung untuk mengurangi kerugian dalam bidang ekonomi dan kesehatan.

Abstract

Aflatoxin is a secondary metabolite secreted by the mold Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus that may contaminate food or feed so harmful to human and animal health. Contamination of aflatoxin-producing mold is commonly found in food and feed which derived from agricultural products. Corn is one of the agricultural products that are easily contaminated by aflatoxin-producing mold. The study aims to isolate the aflatoxin-producing mold Aspergillus spp. in stripped corn vend around Bekasi, West Java. The isolation was conducted by using the method of dilution plating on Dichloran-Glycerol medium. The study obtained 12 isolates of mold, with green colony color (J1, J2, J3, J4, J5, J6, J7, J9, J10, J12), black (J11), and jingga (J8). Identification was conducted by observing the morphology of mold on Malt Extract Agar macroscopically and microscopically. The isolates that allegedly have similarities to A. flavus are J1, J2, J4, J6, J10, and J12. Furthermore, a confirmatory test was preceed by using a selective medium of Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar. There are 2 isolates of molds, J1 and J4, which showed yellowish jingga pigmentation like the positive control of A. flavus. The isolates of mold found in the stripped corn may provide information to farmers and breeders about the type of mold that can cause contamination in corn, so that they can anticipate in advance and improve the quality of the corn to reduce losses in economic and health perspectives.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Afsah-Hejri, L., Jinap, S., & Radu, S. (2013). Occurrence of aflatoxins and aflatoxigenic Aspergillus in peanuts. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environtment, 11(3,4), 228-234.

Ahmad, R. Z. (2009). Cemaran kapang pada pakan dan pengendaliannya. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian, 28(1), 15-22.

Assante, G., Camrada, L., Locci, R. R., Merlini, L., Nasini, G., & Popadopoulos, E. (1981). Isolation and structure of red pigments from Aspergillus flavus and related species, grown on a differential medium. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 29(4), 785-787.

Bennett, J. W., & Christensen, S. B. (1983). New perspectives on aflatoxin biosynthesis. Advanced in Applied Microbiology, 29(6), 53-92.

Bennett, J. W. (2010). An overview of the genus Aspergillus. In M. Machida, K. Gomi (Eds). Aspergillus: Molecular Biology and Genomics (pp. 1-17). Portland, United States: Caiser Academic Press.

Bennett, J. W., & Klich, M. (2003). Mycotoxins. Clinical Microbiology. Review, 16(3), 497-516.

Bahri, S., & Maryam, R. (2004). Mikotoksin berbahaya dan pengaruhnya terhadap kesehatan hewan dan manusia. Jurnal Mikologi Kedokteran Indonesia, 4-5(1-2), 31-34.

Davari, E., Mohsenzadeh, M., Mohammadi, G. H., & Rezaeian-Doloei, R. (2015). Characterization of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus strain isolates from animal feedstuffs in northeastern Iran. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research, 16(2), 150-155.

Dharmaputra, O. S., Putri, A. S. R., Retnowati, I., & Ambarwati, S. (2001). Soil mycobiota of peanut fields in Wonogiri regency, Central Java: their effect on the growth and aflatoksin production of Aspergillus flavus in vitro. Biotropia: The Southest Asian Journal of Tropical Biology, 17(6), 30-58.

Dharmaputra, O. S., Ambarwati, S., Retnowati, I., & Windyarani, A. (2013). Kualitas fisik, populasi Aspergillus flavus, dan kandungan aflatoksin B1 pada biji kacang tanah mentah. Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia, 9(4), 99-106.

Erami, M., Hashemi, S., Pourbakhsh, S., Shahsavandi, S., Mohammadi, S., Shooshtari, A., & Jahanshiri, Z. (2007). Application of PCR on detection of aflatoxinogenic fungi. Archives of Razi Institute, 62(2), 95-100.

Frandberg, E., Olsen, M., & Pitt, J. (2003). Quality control of A. flavus and A. parasiticus agar and comparison with dichloran 18% glycerol agar: a collaborative study. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 89(1), 99-102.

Ghiasian, S. A., & Maghsood, A. H. (2011). Occurrence of aflatoxigenic fungi in cow feeds during the summer and winter season in Hamadan, Iran. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 5(5), 516-521.

Ginting, E., Rahmiana, A. A., & Yusnawan, E. (2005). Pengendalian kontaminasi aflatoksin pada produk kacang tanah melalui penagangan pro dan pasca panen. (18 Oktober 2016). Retrieved from http://www.bptp.jatimdeptan.go.id

Hawksworth, D. L. (2011). Naming Aspergillus species: progress towards one name for each species. Medical Mycology, 49(4), 570–576.

Iqbal, S. Z., Jinap, S., Pirouz, A. A., & Ahmad Faizal, A. R. (2015). Aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products, occurrence and recent challenges: a review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 46(1), 110119.

Klich, M. A. & Pitt, J. I. (1988). A laboratory guide to common Aspergillus species and their teleomorphs. North Ryde, Australia: CSIRO Division of Food Processing.

Klich, M. A. (2000) Identification of common Aspergillus species. Utrecht, Netherlands: Centraalbureau voor Schimmelautures.

Lai, X., Zhang, H., Liu, R., & Liu, C. (2015). Potential for aflatoxin B1 and B2 production by Aspergillus flavus strains isolated from rice samples. Saudi Journal of Biology Sciences, 22(2), 176–180.

Leong, S. L., Hien, L. T., An, T. V., Trang, N. T., Hocking, A. D., & Scott, E. S. (2007). Ochratoxin a-producing Aspergilli in Vietnamese green coffee beans. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 45(3), 301–306.

Mehrzad, J., Klein, G., Kamphues, J., Wolf, P., Grabowski, N., & Schuberth, H. J. (2011). In vitro effects of very low levels of aflatoxin B1 on free radicals production and bactericidal activity of bovine blood neutrophils. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 141(5), 16-25.

Muthomi, J. W., Njenga, L. N., Gathumbi, J. K., & Cheminingwa, N. (2009). The occurrence of aflatoxins in maize and distribution of mycotoxin-producing fungi in Eastern Kenya. Plant Pathology Journal, 8(3), 113-119.

Nyongesa, B. W., Okoth, S., & Ayugi, V. (2015). Identification key for Aspergillus species isolated from maize and soil of Nandi County, Kenya. Scientific Research Publishing, 5(5), 205-229.

Okoth, S. A., Nyongesa, B., Joutsjoki, V., Korhonen, H., Ayugi, V., & Kang, E. K. (2012). Toxigenic potential of Aspergillus species occurring on maize kernels from two agro-ecological zones in Kenya. Toxins, 4(11), 991-1007.

Perrone, G., Haidukowski, M., Stea, G., Epifani, F., Bandyopadhyay, R., & Leslie, J. F. (2014). Population structure and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus sect. Flavi from maize in Nigeria and Ghana. Food Microbiology, 41(1), 52-59.

Pitt, J. I., Hocking, A. D., Samson, R. A., & King, A. D. (1992). Recommended methods for mycological examination of foods, 1992. In R. A. Samson, A. D. Hocking, J. I. Pitt, A. D. King (Eds.), Modern Methods in Food Mycology (pp. 365-368). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.

Pitt, J. I., & Hocking, A. D. (1977). Influence of solute and hydrogen ion concentration on the water relations of some xerophilic fungi. Journal of Genera Microbiology, 101(4), 35-40.

Pleadin, J., Vuli C, A., Persi, N., Skrivanko, M., Capek, B., & Cvetni C, Z. (2014). Aflatoxin B1 occurrence in maize sampled from Croatian farms and feed factories during 2013. Food Control, 40(4), 286-291.

Rachmawati, S., Lee, A., Murdiati, T. B., & Kennedy, I. (2004). Pengembangan enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) teknik untuk analisis aflatoksin B1 pada pakan ternak. Prosiding Seminar Parasitologi dan Toksikologi Veteriner, 133-148.

Rahayu, E. S., Raharjo, S., & Rahmianna, A. A. (2003). Cemaran aflatoksin pada produksi jagung di daerah Jawa Timur. Agricultural Technology, 23(4),174-183.

Safika, & Faisal, J. (2014). Deteksi aflatoksin B1 pada jenis makanan olahan jagung menggunakan Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Jurnal Medika Veterinaria, 9(1), 23–25.

Samson, R. A., Hoekstra, E. S., & Frisvad, J. C. (2004). Introduction to food and airborne fungi 7th Eds. Utrecht: Central bureau voor Schimmelcultures.

Samson, R. A., Varga, J., & Frisvad, J. C. (2011). Taxonomic studies on the genus Aspergillus. Utrecht: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre.

Shier, W. T., Lao, Y., Steele, T. W. J., & Abbas, H. K. (2005). Yellow pigments used in rapid identification of aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus strains are anthraquinones associated with the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. Bioorganic Chemistry, 33(6), 426-438.

Suarni., & Widowati, S. (2007). Struktur, komposisi, dan nutrisi jagung. Pusat Penelitian Tanaman Pangan, Bogor pp. 410426. (2017, October 12). Retrieved from http://balitsereal.litbang.pertanian.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/tiganol.pdf

Sukmawati, D., Oetari, A., Hendrayanti, D., Atria, M., & Wellyzar, S. (2015). Identfication of phylloplane yeast from paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera L.) in Java, Indonesia. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology, 11(4), 324-340.

Sukmawati, D., & Miarsyah, M. (2017). Pathogenic activity of Fussarium equisetii from plantation of citrus plants (Citrus nobilis) in the village Tegal Wangi, Jember Umbul Wangi, East Java, Indonesian. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 5(4), 47-50.

Varga, J., Frisvad, J. C., & Samson, R. A. (2011). Two new a atoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi. Studies in Mycology, 69(1), 57-80.

Utami, T., Hartanta, F. X., Nugroho, A., Usmiati, S., Marwati, S., & Rahayu, E. S. (2012). Penurunan kadar aflatoksin B1 pada sari kedelai oleh sel hidup dan sel mati Lactobacillus Acidophilus Snp-2. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan, 23(1), 58-63.

Warris, A., Voss, A., & Verweij, P. E. (2001). Hospital sources of Aspergillus: new routes of transmission. Nature Review Microbiology,18(1), 156-162.

Williams, J. P., & Hallsworth, J. E. (2009). Limits of life in hostile environments: no barriers to biosphere function?. Environmental Microbiology, 11(12), 3292-3308.

Yenny. (2016). Aflatoksin dan aflatoksikosis pada manusia. Universa Medicina, 25(1), 41-52.

Yogendrarajah, P., Devlieghere, F., Ediage, E. N., Jacxsens, L., De-Meulenaer, B., & De-Saeger, S. (2015). Toxigenic potentiality of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus strains isolated from black pepper assessed by an LC-MS/MS based multi-mycotoxin method. Food Microbiology, 52, 185-196.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15408/kauniyah.v11i2.6961

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



© Copyright CC-BY- SA.
Al-Kauniyah: Jurnal Biologi

Indexed By:

/public/site/images/rachma/logo_moraref_75 /public/site/images/rachma/logo_google_scholar_75_01 /public/site/images/rachma/logo_doaj2_120 /public/site/images/rachma/logo_sinta_75/public/site/images/rachma/logo_isjd_120 /public/site/images/rachma/logo_garuda_75 /public/site/images/rachma/logo_crossref_120/public/site/images/rachma/logo_base_2_120 /public/site/images/rachma/neliti-blue_75 /public/site/images/rachma/dimensions-logo_120

Web Analytics View My Stats

Free counters!