Tanaman Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) dan Perspektif Hukumnya di Indonesia

Yuwono Prianto, Swara Yudhasasmita

Abstract


Abstrak

Genetically modified organism (GMO) merupakan organisme yang gen-gennya telah diubah dengan menggunakan teknik rekayasa genetika. Produk rekayasa genetika diklasifikasikan menjadi 4 macam, yaitu generasi pertama: satu sifat; generasi kedua: kumpulan sifat; generasi ketiga dan keempat: near-intragenic, intragenic, dan cisgenic. Adapun produk rekayasa genetika pada tanaman di Indonesia di antaranya adalah padi, tomat, tebu, singkong, dan kentang. Regulasi tanaman hasil rekayasa genetika diatur oleh beberapa lembaga, di antaranya Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup, Kementerian Pertanian, Komisi Keamanan Hayati, Tim Teknis Keamanan Hayati, dan Biosafety Clearing House, berdasarkan peraturan pemerintah No. 21 tahun 2005. Pengujian yang dilakukan pada produk rekayasa genetika meliputi analisis sumber gen penyebab alergi, sekuens homolog asam amino, resistensi pepsin, skrining serum, serta penggunaan hewan uji. Berbagai produk GMO di Indonesia sejauh ini merupakan produk yang dibutuhkan dalam memenuhi kebutuhan hidup sehari-hari, yang perlu diawasi secara ketat dari segi dampaknya terhadap lingkungan melalui ketentuan hukum yang berlaku, yang diwakili oleh instansi-instansi terkait tersebut.

Abstract

Genetically modified organism (GMO) is an organism whose genes that have been altered by using genetic engineering techniques. Genetic engineering products are classified into 4 types, which are the first generation: one trait; the second generation: a collection of properties; the third and fourth generation: near-intragenic, intragenic, and cisgenic. The genetic engineering products in plants in Indonesia include rice, tomatoes, sugar cane, cassava, and potatoes. The application of the genetically engineered crops is regulated by several institutions, including the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Biosafety Commission, the Biosafety Technical Team and the Biosafety Clearing House, under government regulation No. 21 of the year 2005. Assessment for GMO product can be conducted by analyzing the source of an allergic gene, sequence homology of amino acid, resistance to pepsin, serum screening and use of an animal model. The GMO products in Indonesia are required so far to meet the needs of daily use, which need to be closely monitored in terms of their impact on the environment through the legal provisions, represented by the respective agencies.

 


Keywords


Kata kunci: GMO; Hukum Indonesia; Regulasi; Tanaman; Keywords: GMO; Indonesian Law; Plant; Regulation

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15408/kauniyah.v10i2.5264

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