Uji Validitas, Struktur Internal, dan Measurement Invariance pada Alat Ukur Achievement Goal Orientation

Jamaludin Jamaludin



Achievement goal orientation (AGO) is the goal orientation to achieve achievement. This study aims to explore information about the achievement goal orientation (AGO) measurement tool. This study combines two AGO measurements (original and revised) developed by Midgley et al (1998, 2000) based on the Manual for the patterns of adaptive learning scales (PALS). In this study only measured two of the three dimensions analyzed, namely AGO performance and AGO mastery. The sample in this study amounted to 544 people from three junior high schools in West Jakarta. Twenty-one items (10 items AGO performance and 11 items AGO mastery) were tested for validity, internal structure, and invariance measurement. The results of the validity of the CFA found that AGO performance and AGO mastery were not appropriate to measure the dimensions of AGO. Based on the results of internal structure analysis, the bifactor model is more valid and appropriate in measuring AGO performance and AGO mastery. The results of the Bifactor AGO performance analysis are divided into factors of "doing your best" and "looking smart" while AGO mastery is divided into "liking the task" and "understanding the task". There are only five AGO performance items and seven unidimensional AGO mastery items. In the inter-gender validity test, it was found that men are oriented towards AGO performance while women are oriented towards AGO mastery. MGCFA analysis results that AGO performance is valid up to the metric invariance stage while AGO mastery is not invariance.


Achievement goal orientation (AGO) adalah orientasi tujuan untuk mencapai prestasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi informasi mengenai alat ukur achievement goal orientation (AGO). Penelitian ini menggabungkan dua pengukuran AGO (original dan direvisi) yang dikembangkan oleh Midgley et al (1998, 2000) berdasarkan Manual for the patterns of adaptive learning scales (PALS). Pada penelitian ini hanya mengukur dua dari tiga dimensi yang dianalisis yaitu AGO performance dan AGO mastery. Sampel pada penelitian ini berjumlah 544 orang dari tiga sekolah menengah pertama di Jakarta Barat. Keduapuluh satu item (10 item AGO performance dan 11 item AGO mastery) diuji validitas, struktur internal, dan measurement invariance. Hasil validitas CFA ditemukan bahwa AGO performance dan AGO mastery tidak sesuai mengukur dimensi AGO. Berdasarkan hasil analisis struktur internal, model bifaktor lebih valid dan sesuai dalam mengukur AGO performance dan AGO mastery. Hasil analisis bifaktor AGO performance terbagi menjadi faktor “melakukan yang terbaik” dan “terlihat pintar” sedangkan AGO mastery terbagi menjadi “menyukai tugas” dan “memahami tugas”. Hanya terdapat lima item AGO performance dan tujuh item AGO mastery yang bersifat unidimensional. Pada uji validitas antar gender, dihasilkan bahwa laki-laki berorientasi pada AGO performance sedangkan perempuan berorientasi pada AGO mastery. Analisis MGCFA dihasilkan bahwa AGO performance valid sampai tahap metric invariance sedangkan AGO mastery tidak invariance.



Achievement goal orientation (AGO); Achievement goal orientation (AGO); PALS; validity; internal structure; bifactors; measurement invariance; MGCFA PALS, validity; internal structure; bifactors; measurement invariance; MGCFA


Allen & Yen. (1979). Introduction to Measurement Theory. California: Wadsworth, Inc.

Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261-271.

Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: students' learning strategies and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 260-267.

Anderman, E. M., Urdan, T., & Roeser, R. (2003). The Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey: History, Development, and Psychometric Properties. Trend Child, Washington D.C.

Archer, J. (1994). Achievement goals as a measure of motivation in university students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19, 430-446.

Bowen, N. K., & Masa, R. D. (2015). Conducting measurement invariance tests with ordinal data: A guide for social work researchers. Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research, 6, (2), 2334- 231.5 doi: 10.1086/681607

Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1(3), 185-216. Doi: 10.1177/135910457000100301

Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford Press.

Byrne, B. M. (2012). Structural equation modeling with Mplus: Basic concepts, applications and programming. New York: Routledge.

Campbell, H., Barry, C., Joe, J., & Finney, S. (2008). Configural, metric, and scalar invariance of the modified achievement goal questionnaire across African American and white university students. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 68(6), 988-1007. Doi: 10.1177/0013164408315269

Carr, S. (2006). An examination of multiple goals in children’s physical education: Motivational effects of goal profiles and the role of perceived climate in multiple goal development. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24, 281–297.

Chen, C. (2015). Incremental validity of achievement goals in predicting subjective well-being among university students. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 14, 38-62. Doi: 10.1891/1945-8959.14.1.38

Cury, F., Elliot, A., Sarrazin, P., Fonseca, D. D., & Rufo, M. (2002). The trichotomous achievement goal model and intrinsic motivation: a sequential mediational analysis. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 473–481.

Dekker, S., Krabbendam, L., Lee, N. C., Boschloo, A., de Groot, R., & Jolles, J. (2013). Sex differences in orientation in adolescents aged 10–19: The older boys adopt work avoidant goals twice as often as girls. Learning and Individual Differences, 26, 196–200. Doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2012.07.011

Daniel, H. T. (2014). Ujian nasional, hanya Indonesia yang bisa begini... tragis!. Diunduh tanggal 21 April 2017 dari http://www.kompasiana.com/danielht/ujian-nasional-hanya-indonesia-yang-bisa-begini-tragis_54f74ca8a333117d2d8b4584

Darnon, C., Dompnier, B., & Poortvliet, P. M. (2012). Achievement goals in educational contexts: A social psychology perspective. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6(10), 760–771. Doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2012.00457.x

Duda, J., & Nicholls, J. (1992). Dimensions of achievement motivation in schoolwork and sport. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 290.

Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41(10), 1040-1048. Doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.41.10.1040

Dweck, C, & Leggett, E. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256—273. Doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256

Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34, 149–169. Doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep3403_3

Elliott, E. S., & Dweck, C. S. (1988). Goals: An approach to motivation and achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 5-12. Doi:10.1037/0022-3514.54.1.5

Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501-519. Doi:10.1037/0022-3514.80.3.501

Elliot, A. J., & Murayama, K. (2008). On the measurement of achievement goals: Critique, illustration, and application. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 613–628. Doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.100.3.613

Elliot, A. J., Murayama, K., & Pekrun, R. (2011). A 3 x 2 achievement goal model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(3), 632-648. Doi: 10.1037/a0023952

Elliot, A. J., Thrash, T. M. (2001). Achievement goals and the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. Educational Psychology Review, 13 (2), 139 – 156. Doi: 1040-726X/01/0600-0139

Fisher, S. L., & Ford, J. K. (1988). Differential effects of learner effect and goal orientation in two learning outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 51, 397-420. Doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.1998.tb00731.x

Gonida, E. N., Kiosseoglou, G., & Voulala, K. (2007). Perceptions of parent goals and their contribution to student achievement goal orientation and engagement in the classroom: Grade-level differences across adolescence. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 22(1), 23-39.

Gonida, E. N., Voulala, K., & Kiosseoglou, G. (2009). Students’ achievement goal orientations and their behavioral and emotional engagement: Co-examining the role of perceived school goal structures and parent goals during adolescence. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 53–60. Doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2008.04.002

Hackel, T. S., Jones, M. H., Carbonneau, K. J., & Mueller, C. E. (2016). Re-examining achievement goal instrumentation: Convergent validity of AGQ and PALS. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 46, 73–80. Doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych. 2016.04.005

Hart. C. O., Mueller. C. E., Royal, K. D., & Jones, M. H. (2013). Achievement goal validation among african american high school students: CFA and rasch results. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 31(3), 284– 299. Doi: 10.1177/ 0734282912466726 Indriani. (2016). Penurunan nilai un smp di semua mata pelajaran. Dalam Ruslan Burhani (Ed). Diunduh tanggal 22 Mei 2017 dari http://www.antaranews.com/berita/566651/ penurunan-nilai-un-smp-di-semua-mata-pelajaran

Jagachinski, C. M., & Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Conceptions of ability and related affects in task involvement and ego involvement. Journal of Educational Psychology, (5), 909-919.

Kemendikbud. (2016). Indeks integritas ujian nasional (IIUN) SMA 2016 meningkat. Diunduh tanggal 21April 2017 dari https://www.kemdikbud.go.id/main/blog/ 2016/05/ indeks-integritas-ujian-nasional-iiun-sma-2016-meningkat

Levy, I., Kaplan, A., & Patrick, H. (2004). Early adolescents’ achievement goals, social status, and attitudes towards cooperation with peers. Social Psychology of Education, 7, 127–159.

Liu, W. C., Wang, C. K. J., Tan, O. S., Ee, J., & Koh, C. (2009). Understanding students’ motivation in project work: A 2 x 2 achievement goal approach. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 87–106 .Doi:10.1348/000709908X313767

Maehr, M., & Midgley, C. (1991). Enhancing student motivation: A school-wide approach. Educational Psychologist, 26, 399-427. Doi: 10.1080/00461520. 1991.9653140

Middleton, M. J., Kaplan, A., & Midgley, C. (2004). The change in middle school students’ achievement goals in mathematics over time. Social Psychology of Education, 7, 289–311.

Midgley, C., Kaplan, A., Middleton, M. J., Maehr, M. L., Urdan, T., Anderman, L. H., et al. (1998). The development and validation of scales assessing students’ achievement goal orientations. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 23, 113–131.

Midgley, C., Kaplan, A., & Middleton, M. (2001). Performance-Approach Goals: Good For What, For Whom, Under What Circumstances, and At What Cost?. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(1),77-86. Doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.93.1.77

Midgley, C., Maehr, M. L., Hruda, L. Z., Anderman, E., Anderman, L., Freeman, K. E., et al. (2000). Manual for the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales. University of Michigan.

Muis, K. R., Winne, P. H., & Edward, O. V. (2009). Modern psychometrics for assessing achievement goal orientation: A Rasch analysis. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 547–576. Doi:10.1348/000709908X383472

Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O., Foy, P., & Hooper, M. (2015). TIMSS 2015 international result in mathematics: Fourth grade mathematics. IEA: Lynch School of Education, Boston College. Diunduh tanggal 18 Mei 2017 dari http://timss2015.org/wp-content/uploads/filebase/full%20pdfs/T15-International-Results-in-Mathematics-Grade-4.pdf

Murayama, K., Zhou. M., & Nesbit, J. C. (2009). A cross-cultural examination of the psychometric properties of responses to the achievement goal questionnaire. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69(2), 266-286. Doi: 10.1177/ 0013164408322017

Muthén, L.K. & Muthén, B.O. (2010). Mplus User's Guide (6th Ed). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén&Muthén.

Neil, A., Springer, D. W., & Kamata, A. (2009). Developing and validating rapid assessment instruments. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91, 328-346.

Nicholls, J. G., Cheung, P. C, Lauer, J., & Patashnick, M. (1989). Individual differences in academic motivation: Perceived ability, goals, beliefs, and values. Learning and Individual Differences, 1, 63-84.

Pintrich, P. R. (2000). Multiple goals, multiple pathways: The role of goal orientation in learning and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(3), 544-555. Doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.92.3.544

Pintrich, P. R. (2000). An achievement goal theory perspective on issues in motivation terminology, theory, and research. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 92–104. Doi: 10.1006/ceps.1999.1017

Pintrich, P. R., Conley, A. M., & Kempler, T. M. (2003). Current issues in achievement goal theory and research. International Journal of Educational Research, 39, 319-337. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijer.2004.06.002

Rinthapol, N., & Duran, R. (2011). Validation of Goal Orientation Measure in PALS Among Latino Adolescents Participating in a College Outreach Program. US-China Education Review A 6, 825-830.

Ren, V. S., Lugtig, P., & Hox, J. (2012). A checklist for testing measurement invariance. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9 (4). 486 – 492. http://joophox.net/publist/CecklistMeasInv.pdf Santrock, J. W. (2011). Educational psychology, 5ed. McGraw-Hill: New York, NY.

Salili, F., & Lai, K. M. (2003). Learning and motivation of chinese students in hong kong: A longitudinal study of contextual influences on students’achievement orientation and performance. Psychology in the Schools, 40(1), 51-70. Doi: 10.1002/pits.10069

Schwinger, M., Steinmayr, R., & Spinath, B. (2016). Achievement goal profiles in elementary school: Antecedents, consequences, and longitudinal trajectories. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 1-68. Doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2016.05.006.

Shih, S. S. (2005). Taiwanese sixth graders' achievement goals and their motivation, strategy use, and grades: an examination of the multiple goal perspective. The Elementary School Journal, 106(1), 39-58. Doi: 10.1086/496906

Shih, S. S. (2008). The relation of self- determination and achievement goals to Taiwanese eighth graders' behavioral and emotional engagement in schoolwork. The Elementary School Journal, 108(4), 313-334. Doi: 10.1086/528974

Skaalvik, E. M. (1997). Self-enhancing and self-defeating ego orientation: Relations with task and avoidance orientation, achievement, self-perceptions, and anxiety. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 71– 81.

Steinmayr, R., & Spinath, B. (2008). Sex differences in school achievement: What are the roles of personality and achievement motivation?. European Journal of Personality, 22, 185–209. Doi: 10.1002/per.676.

Theis, D., & Fischer, N. (2017). Sex differences in the development of achievement goals in middle school. Learning and Individual Differences xxx (xxxx) xxx– Doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2017.05.006

Urdan, T., & Midgley, C. (2003). Changes in the perceived classroom goal structure and pattern of adaptive learning during early adolescence. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 28, 524–551. Doi:10.1016/S0361-476X(02)00060-7.

VandenBos, G. R. (2015). APA dictionary of psychology, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Wolters, C. A. (2004). Advancing achievement goal theory: using goal structures and goal orientations to predict students’ motivation, cognition, and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(2), 236-250. Doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.96.2.236

Wolters, C. A., Yu, S. L., & Pintrich, P. R. (1996) The relation between goal orientation and students’ motivational beliefs and self-regulated learning. Learnign and Individual Differences,8(3), 211-238.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.15408/jp3i.v8i2.13331


  • There are currently no refbacks.