Understanding Violent Religious Behavior in Indonesia; From the Concept to the Prevention

Dana Riksa Buana, Oleg Valeryevich Lukyanov

Abstract


Abstract

One of the social issues that are developing rapidly in Indonesia today is violent religious behavior. Several terms are used to describe such behavior as fundamentalism, radicalism, extremism, or terrorism. The government and the authorities are trying to prevent and eradicate this problem, but it will not be effective if the four concepts above are still used ambiguously by the mass media and scientific journals. Therefore, this article will explain these constructs elaborately so that the eradication of violent religious behavior can be done accurately. The method for this research uses a normative juridical method that examines references or secondary data as a basis for the analysis by searching the literature relating to the problem under study. The results and discussion of the research explain that extremism and radicalism are the seeds of the birth of criminal acts of terrorism, while fundamentalism is how an individual feels belonging to a religion and thus considers that his belief is the most right faith and ready to defend it. Besides, this paper will also analyze what factors are the causes of extreme religious actions, as well as how to handle them psychologically (internally) and interventions from government and society (external).

Keywords: Violent Religious Behavior; Fundamentalism; Religious Identity, Spirituality

 

Abstrak

Salah satu masalah sosial yang berkembang pesat di Indonesia saat ini adalah perilaku agama yang penuh kekerasan. Beberapa istilah digunakan untuk menggambarkan perilaku seperti fundamentalisme, radikalisme, ekstremisme, atau terorisme. Pemerintah dan pihak berwenang berusaha mencegah dan memberantas masalah ini, tetapi itu tidak akan efektif jika keempat konsep di atas masih digunakan secara ambigu oleh media massa dan jurnal ilmiah. Oleh karena itu, artikel ini akan menjelaskan konstruksi tersebut secara rumit sehingga pemberantasan perilaku keagamaan yang keras dapat dilakukan secara akurat. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan metode yuridis normatif yang meneliti referensi atau data sekunder sebagai dasar analisis dengan mencari literatur yang berkaitan dengan masalah yang diteliti. Hasil dan diskusi penelitian menjelaskan bahwa ekstremisme dan radikalisme adalah benih kelahiran tindak pidana terorisme, sementara fundamentalisme adalah bagaimana seorang individu merasa menjadi bagian dari sebuah agama dan dengan demikian mencerminkan bahwa keyakinannya adalah keyakinan yang paling benar dan siap untuk mempertahankan Itu. Selain itu, makalah ini juga akan menganalisis faktor-faktor apa yang menjadi penyebab tindakan keagamaan yang ekstrem, serta bagaimana menanganinya secara psikologis (internal) dan intervensi dari pemerintah dan masyarakat (eksternal).

Kata kunci: Perilaku Agama yang Penuh Kekerasan; Fundamentalisme; Identitas Agama, Spiritualitas

 

 Аннотация

Одной из социальных проблем, которая быстро развивается в Индонезии в настоящее время, является насильственное религиозное поведение. Несколько терминов используются для описания такого поведения: фундаментализм, радикализм, экстремизм или терроризм. Правительство и органы власти пытаются предотвратить и искоренить эту проблему. Однако, попытка не будет эффективной, если четыре вышеуказанные концепции все ещё будут двусмысленно использоваться средствами массовой информации и научными журналами. Таким образом, эта статья подробно объяснит эти конструкции, так что искоренение насильственного религиозного поведения может быть сделано в точности. Метод данного исследования является нормативным юридическим, который рассматривает ссылки или вторичные данные в качестве основы для анализа путем поиска литературы, относящейся к изучаемой проблеме. Результаты и обсуждение исследования объясняют, что экстремизм и радикализм являются семенами рождения преступных террористических актов, в то время как фундаментализм - это то, как человек чувствует принадлежность к религии и, таким образом, считает что его вера является самой правильной и готов защищать её. Кроме того, в этой статье будет проанализировано, какие факторы являются причинами экстремальных религиозных действий, а также как справиться с ними психологически (внутренне) и с помощью вмешательства со стороны правительства и общества (внешне).

Ключевые слова: насильственного религиозного, Индонезии


Keywords


Violent Religious Behavior; Fundamentalism; Religious Identity, Spirituality

Full Text:

PDF

References


Books

Goddard, N. (2012). Core Psychiatry (Third Edition). London: Elsevier.

Harari, Y. N. (2015). Sapiens : a brief history of humankind. New York :Harper.

Hefferon, K., & Boniwell, I. (2011). Positive psychology: theory, research and applications. Maidenhead, Berkshire, England: Open University Press, McGraw-Hill.

Herriot, P. (2007). Religious fundamentalism and social identity. London: Routledge.

Koenig, H.G. & Al Shohaib, S. (2014). Health and well-being in Islamic societies: Background, research, and applications. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing Switzerland

Luk'yanov O.V. (2008). Problema stanovleniya identichnosti v epokhu sotsial'nykh izmenenii [The Problem of The Formation of Identity in The Epoch of Social Changes]. Tomsk.

Book chapter

Mearns, J. (2009). Social learning theory. In H. Reis & S. Sprecher (Eds.), Encyclopedia of human relationships (vol. 3). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. doi:10.4135/9781412958479.n506

McGregor, I. (2004). Zeal, Identity, and Meaning: Going to Extremes to Be One Self. In J. Greenberg, S. L. Koole, & T. Pyszczynski (Eds.), Handbook of Experimental Existential Psychology (pp. 182-199). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.

The law and Court’s Decision

Undang-Undang Nomor 15 tahun 2003 tentang Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Terorisme

Journal article with DOI

Alex S. Wilner & Claire-Jehanne Dubouloz (2010). Homegrown terrorism and transformative learning: an interdisciplinary approach to understanding radicalization, Global Change, Peace & Security, 22(1), 33-51. https://doi.org/10.1080/14781150903487956

Halıcı Kurtulan, M., & Karaırmak, Ö. (2016). Examination of the relationship among death anxiety, spirituality, religious orientation and existential anxiety. Spiritual Psychology and Counseling, 1, 206–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.12738/spc.2016.2.0007

Mascaro, N., & Rosen, D. H. (2006). The Role of Existential Meaning as a Buffer Against Stress. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 46(2), 168–190. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022167805283779

Milla, M. N., Putra, I. E., & Umam, A. N. (2019). Stories from jihadists: Significance, identity, and radicalization through the call for jihad. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 25(2), 111–121. https://doi.org/10.1037/pac0000371

Piedmont, R. L., Ciarrochi, J. W., Dy-Liacco, G. S., & Williams, J. E. G. (2009). The empirical and conceptual value of the spiritual transcendence and religious involvement scales for personality research. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 1(3), 162–179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0015883

Putra, I. E., & Sukabdi, Z. A. (2014). Can Islamic fundamentalism relate to nonviolent support? The role of certain conditions in moderating the effect of Islamic fundamentalism on supporting acts of terrorism. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 20(4), 583–589. https://doi.org/10.1037/pac0000060

Rohmatika, V.R. & Hakiki, K. M. (2018). Fanatisme Beragama Yes, Ekstrimisme Beragama No; Upaya Meneguhkan Harmoni Beragama Dalam Perspektif Kristen. Al-Adyan Jurnal Studi Lintas Agama, 13(1), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.24042/ajsla.v13i1.2940

Russinova, Z., & Cash, D. (2007). Personal perspectives about the meaning of religion and spirituality among persons with serious mental illnesses. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 30(4), 271–284. https://doi.org/10.2975/30.4.2007.271.284

Yunus, A. F. (2017). Radikalisme, Liberalisme dan Terorisme: Pengaruhnya Terhadap Agama Islam. Jurnal Studi Al-Qur’an, 13(1), 76 - 94. doi.org/10.21009/JSQ.013.1.06

Zinnbauer, B. J., Pargament, K. I., Cole, B., Rye, M. S., Butter, E. M., Belavich, T. G., Hipp, K. M., Scott, A. B., & Kadar, J. L. (1997). Religion and spirituality: Unfuzzying the fuzzy. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 36(4), 549–564. https://doi.org/10.2307/1387689

Journal article on website

Kurnia K. D., Wahyuni E. N., & Susanti R. H. (2017). Pengaruh Kesejahteraan Sosial Terhadap Agresivitas Siswa Kelas VII SMP Negeri 1 Kepanjen. Jurnal Konseling Indonesia, 2 (2): pp. 57-62. http://repository.uin-malang.ac.id/2501/3/2501.pdf

Newspaper article on website

CNN Indonesia. (2019, November 15). Radikalisme, Definisi Semu dan Potensi Salah Sasaran. CNN Indonesia. Retrieved from https://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20191115104318-20-448568/radikalisme-definisi-semu-dan-potensi-salah-sasaran

Mydans, Seth. (2007, July 2). Religiosity, Not Radicalism Is new wave in Indonesia. The New York Times, p.A7. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com

Website document and research

Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Terorisme. (2016). Strategi Menghadapi Paham Radikalisme Terorisme-ISIS. Retrieved from https://belmawa.ristekdikti.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Strategi-Menghadapi-Paham-Radikalisme-Terorisme.pdf

Good, Marie. (2011). Exploring The Development and Psychosocial Correlates of Spirituality/ Religiosity Across Adolescence (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://dr.library.brocku.ca/bitstream/handle/10464/4074/Brock_Good_Marie_2011.pdf?sequence=1

Jackson, Ronald L. (2010). Encyclopedia of identity. Los Angeles: SAGE. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412979306.n203

Pew Research Center. (2015). Pew Research Center Religion & Public Life. Retrieved from https://www.pewforum.org/2015/04/02/muslims/pf_15-04-02_projectionstables74/

Rosyidin, I . (2016) PENGARUH SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING TERHADAP AGRESIVITAS PADA PENGEMUDI OJEK PANGKALAN. Sarjana thesis, UNIVERSITAS NEGERI JAKARTA. Retrieved from http://repository.unj.ac.id/1227/

Sachs, J. D., Layard, R., & Helliwell, J. F. (2018). World Happiness Report 2018 (No. id: 12761). Retrieved from https://s3.amazonaws.com/happiness-report/2018/WHR_web.pdf

Schmid AP. (2014). Violent and Non-Violent Extremism: Two Sides of the Same Coin? Research Paper. The Hague: ICCT. Retrieved from https://www.icct.nl/download/file/ICCT-Schmid-Violent-Non-Violent-Extremism-May-2014.pdf




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15408/jch.v8i1.15003 Abstract - 0 PDF - 0

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Free counters!

View My Stats

Creative Commons License 
licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International