Politeness Strategies of The Panders in Women Trafficking

Ike Revita, R. Trioclarise, Nilla Anggreiny

Abstract


Abstract

Women trafficking is a kind of activity in which women are exploited. In women trafficking activity , there is no consideration of women’s right. The target is those women can be used to get money as much as possible. The women can become the victim of women trafficking is due to the ability of the panders in doing persuasion. Through various strategies, these panders are successful in pushing these women to fall into this inhuman activity. One of the strategy is by politely ensuring them. This writing is aimed at describing the politeness strategy used by panders in persuading women to be the victim of women trafficking. The research is conducted in West Java (Bekasi, Cirebon, and Indramayu). The data are any utterances of the panders in persuading the women to be the victim of women trafficking. Observational method with note-taking, recording, and interviewing is used to collect data. The analysis is done by pragmatic and referential identity method related to the concept of politeness proposed Brown and Levinson (1987), Oktavianus and Revita (2013), Leech (2014), and Mira (2010). The result of analysis is descriptively presented. Having analyzed data, it is found that there are four politeness strategies used by the panders in woman trafficking activities. They are ( (a) bald on record; (b) positive politeness; (c) negative politeness; and (d) off record.

---

Abstrak
Perdagangan perempuan merupakan bentuk kegiatan ekploitasi perempuan. Di sini, perempuan dijadikan sebagai ajang komoditas. Tujuannya adalah utk menjadikan perempuan sebagai alat pencari uang sebanyak2nya.  Perempuan sdh banyak yg jadi korban praktik perdagangan perempuan paracalo nakal. Mereka (Paracalo) ini berhasil menjerat para perempuan dg menggunakan berbagai strategi. Salah satu strateginya adalah dg cara meyakinkan/membujuk sikorban. Tulisan ini bertujuan utk memaparkan strategi paracalo dlm menjerat korbannya.  Penelitian ini dilakukan di wilayah Jawa Barat (Bekasi, Cirebon, and Indramayu). Data penelitian ini diambil dari keterangan paracalo perdagangan perempuan. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui metode observasi dg mencatat, merekam, dan melakukan wawancara. Teknik analisi yg digunakan adlh analisis pragmatik dan metode identitas referensi yg relevan dg konsep “kesopanan” yg diusung olh Brown and Levinson (1987), Oktavianus and Revita (2013), Leech (2014), and Mira (2010). Data yg sdh terkumpul dianalisis secara deskriptif. Berdasarkan hasil analisis, penelitian ini menyimpulkan ada empat macam strategi kesopanan yg digunakan olh paracalo dlm mendekati mangsanya: (a) bald on record; (b) positive politeness; (c) negative politeness; and (d) off record. Kata kunci: strategi kesopanan, perdagangan perempuan, korban, calo, perempuan.

DOI: 10.15408/al-turas.v23i1.4810


Keywords


politeness strategy, women trafficking, panders, women, victim

References


D. Bibliography

Allan, Keith. 1986. Linguistic Meaning. Vol.1 dan Vol. 2. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Inc

Alston, William P. 2000. Ilocutionary Acts and Sentence Meaning. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press

Ariel, Mira. 2010. The Defining of Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Austin, J.L. 1962. How to Do Things with Words. Oxford :The Clarendon Press.

Bach, Kent and Robert M. Harnish. 1979. Linguistic Communication and Speech Acts. London: The MIT Press

Barwise, Jon and John Perry. (1983). Situations and Attitudes. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

Brown, Penelope & Stephen Levinson. 1987. Politeness: Some Universal of Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Carston, Robyn. 2005. Relevance theory, Grice and the neo-Griceans: a response to Laurence Horn’s ‘Current issues in neo-Gricean pragmatics’. Intercultural Pragmatics 2 (3). 303–319.

Chaer, Abdul. 2007. Linguistik Umum. Jakarta : Rineka Cipta

Chaika, Elaine. 1982. Language The Social Mirror. Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers, Inc.

Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. 2007. Research Method in Education 6th . London and New York: Routledge.

Cruse, Alan. 2006. A. Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press

Crystal, David. 1987. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Cummings, Louis. 2007. Pragmatics : A Multidisciplinary Perspectives. NY: Oxford University Press

Dancygier, Barbara and Sweetser, Eve. 2014. Figurative Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Davies, Eirlys. 1986. The English Imperative. London:Croom Helm

Goodwin, Charles and Duranti, Alessandro. 1992. “Rethinking context: An introduction.” In Rethinking Context, Alessandro Duranti and Charles Goodwin (eds), 1–42. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Farrel, Amy. 2012. Hidden Victims of Human Trafficking. NIJ Conference, June 18-20

Fetzer, Anita and Oishi, Atsuko. 2011. Introduction. In Anita Fetzer and Etsuko Oishi (Ed.). Context and Contexts. Philadelphia/Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publsihing Company.

Foley, William A. 1997. Anthropological Linguistics. USA: Blackwell Publishers

Friesendorf, Cornelius. 2009. Startegies Againts Women Trafficking: The Role of the Security Sector. Study Group Information: Vienna and Geneva

Guardino, Angelo p; and Sanborn, Robert D. 2011. Human Trafficking: Awareness, Data and Policy. Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk, 2(1)

Gu, Y. 1990. Politeness phenomena in modern Chinese. Journal of Pragmatics 3: 237–257

Halliday, M.A.K. 1973. Exploration in Function of Language. London: Edward Arnold

Horn, Laurence R. 2014. The Roots of (Scalar) Implicature. In Salvatore Pistoia Reda. (Ed.) Pragmatics, Semantics and the Case of Scalar Implicatures.Germany: Palgrave MacMilan.

Hornby, A.S. (1986). Oxford Advanced Learners’ Disctionary of Current English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hymes, Dell. 1972. ‘Models of the Interaction of Language and Social Life’ dalam Dell Hymes and John J. Gumperz. Directions in Sociolinguistics. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc

Israel, Michael, Jennifer Riddle Harding, and Vera Tobin. 2004. On simile. In Michel Achard and Suzanne Kemmer (eds.), Language, Culture and Mind. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications, 123–35

Gunarwan, A. 2002. Pedoman Penelitian Pemakaian Bahasa. Jakarta:Pusat Bahasa

Haugh, Michale. 2015. Im/Politeness Implicature. Germany: De Gruyter Mouton

International Labour Office. 2009. Operational Indicators of Traffickin in Human Beings. Internationan Labour Office: Geneva

Jakubowska, Ewa. 1999. Cross Cultural Dimension of Politeness. Katowice:Wydawnictwo Unyversitetu

Kara, Siddharth. 2010. Designing More Effective Laws Against Human Trafficking. Northwestern Journal of International Women Rights, 9(2)

Lazcko, Frank and Gramegna, Marco A. 2003. Developing Better Indicators of Women Trafficking. Brown Journal of World Affairs, 10(1)Levinson, Stephen C. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Leech, Geoffrey. 2014. The Pragmatics of Politeness. New York: Oxford University Press

Leech, Geoffrey. 1983. Principle of Pragmatics. New York: Longman

Lembaran Fakta HAM. Anonim. Bentuk-bentuk Perbudakan Masa Kini

Levinson, Stephen C. 1986. Pragmatics. London: Cambridge University Press

Liputan 6 Siang. SCTV. 16 April 2013

Mahsun. 2015. Metode dan Aneka Teknik Penelitian Bahasa: Tahapan Strategi, Metode, dan Tekniknya. Jakarta: PT. Grafindo Utama.

Mey, L Jacob. 2009. Speech Acts in Context. In Anita Fetzer and Etsuko Oishi (Ed.). Context and Contexts. Philadelphia/Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publsihing Company.

Moleong, L. J. 2001 Metode Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya

Nadar, F.X.2013. Pragmatik dan Penelitian Pragmatik. Yogyakarta:Graha Ilmu

Nguyen, Thi Thuy Minh. 2008. ‘Modifying L2 criticisms: How learners do it?’. Journal of Pragmatics 40:768-791

Oktavianus and Revita, Ike. 2013. Kesantunan dalam Bahasa Minangkabau . Padang:Minangkabau Press

Pranowo. 2009. Berbahasa Secara Santun. Jakarta : Pustaka Pelajar

Purwanti, Ani. 2009. ‘Perlindungan Hukum terhadap Perempuan dan Perdagangan Anak (Trafficking) di Indonesia. Jurnal Media Hukum. Vol. 9. No.2

Rahardi, Kunjana.2005. Pragmatik. Jakarta : Erlangga

Ramlan, M. 2001. Sintaksis. Yogyakarta: C.V. Karyono

Revita, Ike. 2017. ‘Teknologi dan Miskom’. Harian Singgalang. Padang

Revita, Ike. 2016. Kaleidoskop Linguistik. Padang: Andalas University Press

Revita, Ike. 2016a. ‘A Word Has A Bundle of Meaning’ . Harian Singgalang. Padang

Revita, Ike and Rovika, Trioclarise. 2016. ‘Medical Perlocutionary Effect of the Victims of Women Trafficking’. Seminar Nasional Pragmatik, Semiotik, dan Kebudayaan. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia

Revita, Ike. 2015. ‘Indahnya Kebersamaan’. Harian Singgalang. Padang

Revita, Ike. 2013. Pragmatik: Kajian Permintaan Lintas Budaya. Padang: Fakultas Ilmu Budaya

Revita, Ike. 2013a.’Pragmatic Variation of Speech Sequence in Doing Request’. ISMIL 16. Padang: UBH

Revita, Ike. 2013b. The Politeness in the Speech Act of Request from Students to Their Lecturer via SMS’. Seminar Nasional. Yogyakarta: UGM

Revita, Ike. 2008. ‘Permintaan dan Penolakan dalam Bahasa Minangkabau: Tinjauan Sosiopragmatik. Disertasi. Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada

Searle, John R. 1992. ‘Conversation’. Dalam John R. Searle et.al. (On) Searle on Conversation. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company

Searle, J. R. 1969. Speech Acts: An Assay in The Philosophy of Language. London: Cambridge University Press

Sperber, Dan & Deirdre Wilson. 1995. Relevance: Communication and Cognition (2nd ed.).Oxford: Blackwell

Stein, Richard A. 2010. HIV: The Hidden Face of Women Trafficking. World Medical & Health Policy, 2(1)

Sudaryanto. 2015. Metode dan Aneka Teknik Penelitian Bahasa. Jakarta: Sanata Dharma University Press

Sugiyono. 2014. Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, Kualitatif, dan RD. Cet. Ke-20. Bandung: Alfabeta

Thompson, Katy. 2006. A Summary of Challenges Facing Legal Responses to Women Trafficking for Labour Exploitation in the Osce Region. OSCE, High Level Conference Undang-undang Nomor 21 Tahun 2007 tentang Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Perdagangan Orang

Van Dijk, Teun A. 1977. Text and Context. New York: Longman Inc

Verhaar, J.W.M. 2001. Asas-Asas Linguistik Umum. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press

Verschueren, Jef. 1999. Understanding Pragmatics. London: Arnold

Wardaugh, Ronald. 1986. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Basil Blackwell

Walters, Jim and Davis, Patricia H. 2011. Women Trafficking, Sex Tourism, and Child Exploitation on the Southern Border. Journal of Applied Research on Children: Infroming Policy for Children at Risk, 2(1)

Wardaugh, Ronald and Fuller, F Janet. 2015. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics.7th Ed. USA: Wiley Blackwell

Wardaugh, Ronald. 2010. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics.6th Ed. USA: Wiley Blackwell

Watts, Ricahrd J, Ide, Sachiko, and Ehlich, Konrad. 2005. Politeness in Language. 2nd Ed. Berlin: Mouyon de Gruyter

Watts, Richard J.2003. Politeness. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press

Wijana, I Dewa Putu and Muhammad R. 2009. Analisis Wacana Pragmatik. Surakarta: Yuma Pustaka

Wijana, I Dewa Putu. 1996. Dasar-dasar Pragmatik. Yogyakarta: Andi

Wilson, Jeremy M. 2008. Women Trafficking in the Hertland. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(3), 296-313

Yule, George.1996. Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Index Citations by :

Buletin Al-Turas academia.edu /public/site/images/ridwankamil2016/index_portal_garuda_120Buletin Alturas On OneSearch!Buletin Al-Turas On Morarief /public/site/images/ridwankamil2016/logo_sinta_320

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Buletin Al-Turas | Fakultas Adab dan Humaniora, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta
P-ISSN : 0853-1692
E-ISSN : 2579-5848

Alamat :
Jl. Tarumanegara, Cirendeu, Ciputat Timur, Kota Tangerang Selatan, Gd. Fakultas Adab dan Humaniora, Lt. 3, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta.
Kodepos : 15419 | Telpon : (021) 7443329 | Fax : (021) 7493364

Email: alturats@uinjkt.ac.id

 

Powered DOI by :

Crossref logo

 


Supported by:

Lisensi Creative Commons DMCA.com Protection Status /public/site/images/ridwankamil2016/logo_oai-pmh_100 /public/site/images/akhmadyusuf/mendeley_288
Buletin Al-Turas
oleh Fakultas Adab dan Humaniora disebarluaskan di bawah CC BY-SA - © All Rights reserved 2017.