Description of vowel in the first grammatical work of Tamil and Arabic: A contrastive analysis

D. Sundararaj

Abstract


Abstract

Tolkāppiyam and Al-Kitāb, these two grammatical texts are belonging to two different languages Tamil and Arabic. Tamil is a Dravidian family and Arabic is a Semitic family with different writing systems (Tamil-left to right; Arabic-right to left).  These two grammatical texts are written in different historical period, Tolkāppiyam written in BC 300 and Al-Kitāb written in AD 800. Both are describes the vowels of respective language through different phonetic features. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate and analyze the articulatory treatment of vowels in the perspective of first grammatical work of respective languages. The first section of the paper is evaluating the articulatory treatment, theory, classification and phonetic frameworks of vowels in respective grammars, and the second section analyzing in contrastive and describes the commonness and differences between these two texts. This section finds out the commonness in the following features: articulatory treatment, descriptive and use of technical terms etc. The differences are found in the following features: order of the description of speech sounds, method of classification of vowels etc.

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Abstrak
Tolkāppiyam dan Al-Kitab adalah dua teks gramatikal yang menggunakan dua bahasa yang berbeda, yakni Tamil dan Arab. Ditinjau dari aspek rumpun bahasa, Tamil merupakan keluarga bahasa Dravida, sedangkan Arab adalah keluarga bahasa Semit. Sistem penulisan kedua bahasa itu berbeda bahasa Tamil memiliki sistem penulisan dari arah kiri ke kanan; sedankgan bahasa Arab memakai sistem penulisan dari arah kanan ke kiri. Kedua teks tata bahasa itu ditulis dalam periode sejarah yang berbeda, Tolkāppiyam ditulis dalam SM 300 dan Al-Kitab yang ditulis dalam AD 800. Keduanya menunjukkan vokal bahasa masing-masing, melalui fitur fonetik yang berbeda. Tujuan utama dari artikel ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi dan menganalisis cara artikulasi vokal dalam perspektif  tata bahasa, bahasa itu. Bagian pertama dari tulisan ini mengevaluasi cara  artikulasi, teori, klasifikasi dan kerangka fonetik yang menunjukkan bunyi-bunyi vokal dalam tata bahasa masing-masing, dan bagian analisis kedua dilakukan tinjauan aspek kontrastif dan menggambarkan secara umum persamaan dan perbedaan antara dua teks tersebut. Pada kesempatan ini dipaparkan secara umum beberapa fitur antara lain: cara artikulasi, deskripsi dan penggunaan istilah teknis. Bertumpu kepeda beberapa fitur itu terdapat perbedaan yang ditemukan dalam fitur itu, yaknit: urutan deskripsi suara pidato, metode klasifikasi vokal dan beberapa fitur lainnya.

DOI: 10.15408/al-turas.v23i1.4808


Keywords


Al-Kitāb, Arabic vowels, Classification of vowels, Sībawayhi, Tamil vowels, Tolkāppiyam, Tolkāppiyar.

References


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