Nilai-Nilai Moralitas dalam Syair Jahiliyah Karya Zuhair Ibnu Abi Sulma

Cahya Buana

Abstract


Abstrak

Masa Jahiliyah selalu identik dengan dengan kebodohan dan amoralitas. Namun demikian, berdasarkan fakta sejarah, bangsa Arab pada masa Jahiliyah telah mengenal seni sastra yang berkualitas tinggi, baik dari segi isi maupun gaya bahasa. Syair sebagai karya sastra yang sulit dan rumit ternyata telah lama berkembang di Jazirah Arab, sebagaimana berkembang di kerajaan-kerajaan besar sekitarnya seperti Romawi dan Persia yang terkenal dengan peradabannya yang sangat tinggi di masa itu. Syair sebagai karya seni tidak terlepas dari unsur emosi, imajinasi, ide, dan gaya bahasa yang indah. Unsur-unsur ini tentu saja sulit diekspresikan oleh masyarakat yang tidak memiliki rasa seni dan budaya yang tinggi. Jika demikian, benarkah bangsa Arab Jahiliyah adalah bangsa yang benar-benar tidak mengenal peradaban dan tidak mengenal nilai-nilai moralitas? Melalui kajian Strukturalis genetik terhadap syair karya Zuhair ibnu Abi Sulma seorang penyair sekaligus filsuf bangsa Arab Jahiliyah,  penulis mengungkap nilai-nilai moralitas yang terdapat dalam kehidupan bangsa Arab pada masa Jahiliyah.

Berdasarkan hasil analisis, terbukti bahwa bangsa Arab Jahiliyah telah mengenal nilai-nilai moralitas universal baik yang bersumber dari pengalaman hidup, maupun nilai-nilai keimanan. Secara umum, nilai-nilai moralitas yang mereka pahami bukan bersumber dari keyakinan terhadap Tuhan, melainkan bersumber dari pengalaman hidup.

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Abstract

Period of Ignorance always synonymous with ignorance and immorality. However, based on historical facts, the Arabs at the time of Ignorance had known literary art of high quality, both in terms of content and style. Poem as a literary work difficult and complicated turns have long been grown in the Arabian Peninsula, as developed in the kingdoms surrounding large as the Roman and Persian civilization is known for very high at that time. Poem as a work of art can not be separated from the element of emotion, imagination, ideas, and style that is beautiful. These elements are of course difficult to be expressed by people who do not have a sense of art and high culture. If  that, did the Arabs Ignorance is the nation that really knows no civilization and do not know the values ​​of morality? Through genetic studies of the poetry works Structuralists Zuhair Ibn Abi Sulma poet and philosopher of the Arabs of ignorance, the authors reveal the moral values ​​contained in the life of the Arabs at the time of Ignorance.

Based on the analysis, it is evident that the Arabs of ignorance have known values ​​of universal morality both from life experiences, as well as the values ​​of faith. In general, the values ​​of morality they understood not from belief in God, but rather comes from life experience.

DOI: 10.15408/al-turas.v23i1.4803


Keywords


Jahiliyah, Syair, Strukturalis genetic, nilai-nilai, moralitas

References


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