Produksi Enzim Ligninolitik dan Dekolorisasi Pewarna Sintetis Oleh Isolat Baru Jamur Tropis Cymatoderma dendriticum WM01

Maulida Oktaviani, Nissa Nurfajrin Solihat, Yusup Amin, Dede Heri Yuli Yanto

Abstract


Abstrak

Penggunaan pewarna sintetik pada berbagai industri telah menimbulkan pencemaran lingkungan. Jamur pelapuk putih (JPP) yang umumnya menghasilkan enzim ligninolitik dipercaya mampu mendegradasi senyawaan ini. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan isolat baru JPP Cymatoderma dendriticum WM01 dalam memproduksi enzim ligninolitik dan mendekolorisasi pewarna sintetik. Skrining aktivitas enzim diukur berdasarkan pertumbuhan jamur pada media agar alkali-lignin, sedangkan aktivitas dekolorisasi diukur berdasarkan kemampuan jamur mendokolorisasi pewarna Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) pada medium agar. Kemampuan dekolorisasi dan aktivitas enzimatik jamur terhadap tiga jenis pewarna menggunakan media Dzapek-Dox cair yang masing-masing mengandung pewarna RBBR, Acid Blue 129 (AB129), dan Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pembentukan zona merah kecokelatan pada media alkali-lignin akibat adanya aktivitas degradasi lignin oleh jamur, sedangkan pemudaran warna pada media agar-RBBR menunjukkan kemampuan dekolorisasi jamur terhadap pewarna sistetis. C. dendriticum WM01 mendekolorisasi pewarna RBBR, AB129, dan RB5 dengan efisiensi masing-masing sebesar 22,6%, 81,9%, dan 12,1%. Selama proses dekolorisasi hanya enzim mangan peroksidase (0,3 U/L) yang dihasilkan oleh C. dendriticum WM01. Menariknya, penambahan ekstrak daun jati (50 mg/20 mL) mampu meningkatkan aktivitas enzim mangan peroksidase hingga 37,6 U/L dan lakase hingga 208,1 U/L. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa isolat C. dendriticum WM01 berpotensi untuk digunakan pada dekolorisasi air limbah pewarna tekstil.

Abstract

The use of synthetic dyes in various industries caused environmental pollution. White-rot fungi, which generally produce ligninolytic enzymes, are believed to be able to degrade these recalcitrant compounds. This study aims to investigate the ability of the new isolate white-rot fungus Cymatoderma dendriticum WM01 to decolorize synthetic dyes. Screening of ligninolytic activity was based on fungal growth on alkali-lignin agar media, while decolorization activity was observed by the fungal ability to decolorize Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) dye in agar medium. The strain was tested to decolorize RBBR, Acid Blue 129 (AB129), and Reactive Black 5 (RB5) dyes in Dzapek-Dox broth media. The results showed the formation of a red-brownish area on alkali-lignin agar media, indicated degradation of lignin by strain WM01. The strain was able to decolorize RBBR, AB129, and RB5 dyes with efficiency of 22.6%, 81.9%, and 12.1%, respectively. During decolorization, only manganese peroxidase (0.3 U/L) was detected in culture medium.  Interestingly, the addition of teak leaf extract (50 mg/20 mL) increased the activity of manganese peroxidase to 37.6 U/L and laccase to 208.1 U/L. This study suggests that C. dendriticum WM01 has the potential to be used in decolorization of textile dye wastewater.


Keywords


Cymatoderma dendriticum; Dekolorisasi; Ekstrak daun jati; Enzim ligninolitik; Pewarna sintetik; Decolorization; Ligninolytic enzyme; Synthetic dyes; Teak leaf extract

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