IDENTIFIKASI SENYAWA AKTIF EKSTRAK DAUN CENGKEH (Syzygium aromaticum) SEBAGAI INHIBITOR Streptococcus mutans

Usep Suhendar, Sogandi Sogandi

Abstract


Abstrak

Karies gigi adalah penyakit yang umum dialami oleh masyarakat yang terjadi karena buruknya kebersihan mulut. Kebiasaan masyarakat yang kurang menjaga kebersihan mulut mengakibatkan terbentuknya plak. Plak pada gigi terbentuk karena aktivitas dari berbagai macam mikroorganisme di mulut. Mikroorganisme yang diketahui terlibat dalam pembentukan karies gigi adalah Streptococcus mutans. Salah satu bahan alternatif sebagai antibakteri adalah daun cengkeh. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi senyawa bioaktif daun cengkeh dan mengetahui mekanisme aksinya dalam menghambat pertumbuhan Streptococcus mutans. Daun cengkeh (Syzygium aromaticum) yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini dimaserasi menggunakan metanol 96%. Pengujian aktivitas antibakteri dilakukan dengan metode difusi agar, senyawa bioaktif diidentifikasi menggunakan gas chromatography mass spectrometry dan perubahan membran sel bakteri diamati dengan scanning electron microscopy. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ekstrak metanol daun cengkeh memiliki aktivitas penghambatan terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri Streptococcus mutans dengan zona hambat sebesar ±32 mm serta nilai konsentrasi hambat minimum (KHM) 20% ekstrak. Mekanisme aksi penghambatan ekstrak daun cengkeh terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri diduga dengan membuat lubang pada membran sel bakteri. Hasil penelitian ini juga menunjukkan bahwa daun cengkeh memiliki kandungan senyawa bioaktif 3-allyl-6-methoxyphenol-eugenol, caryophyllene 1,4,7,-cycloundecatriene, 1,5,9,9-tetramethyl, phenol, 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl), dan eugenol acetate yang dapat menjadi kandidat penghasil senyawa aktif untuk mengatasi karies gigi.

Abstract

Dental caries is a common disease experienced by people who do not maintain oral hygiene. Habits of not maintain oral hygiene result in the formation of plaque. The microorganism known to be involved in the formation of dental caries is Streptococcus mutans. Plants that have antibacterial properties, such as clove (Syzygium aromaticum) leaf, can be an alternative for carrying this problem. This study aims to identify the bioactive compounds of clove leaves and to determine the mechanism of its action in inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus mutans. Clove leaves were macerated using 96% methanol for the extraction. Antibacterial activity was examined by agar diffusion method, bioactive compounds were identified using gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and bacterial cell membrane changes were observed by an image captured using scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the methanol extract of clove leaf had inhibitory activity on Streptococcus mutans growth, with inhibitory zones of ±32 mm and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 20% extract. It was suspected that the mechanism of inhibitory action is by making pores in the bacterial cell membrane. The results also showed that the clove leaves contain bioactive compounds of 3-allyl-6-methoxyphenol-eugenol, caryophyllene, 1,4,7, -cycloundecatriene, 1,5,9,9-tetramethyl, phenol, 2 -methoxy-4- (2-propenyl), and eugenol acetate which can be candidates for producing active compounds to overcome dental caries.


Keywords


Antibakteri; Bioaktif; Mekanisme aksi; Streptococcus mutans; Syzygium aromaticum; Antibacterial; Bioactive; Mechanism of action

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15408/kauniyah.v12i2.12251 Abstract - 0 PDF - 0

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