INVENTARISASI DAN STUDI EKOLOGI BUAH BIWA (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) DI LIMA KABUPATEN DI SUMATERA UTARA

Suluh Normasiwi, Lily Ismaini, Muhammad Imam Surya

Abstract


Biwa (Eriobotrya japonica) termasuk dalam famili Rosaseae dan merupakan tanaman asli Tiongkok yang menyebar hingga ke Jepang, Korea, pengunungan India, dan Eropa. Di Indonesia, Buah Biwa ditemukan di dataran tinggi Sumatera Utara. Buah biwa termasuk buah yang belum banyak dibudidayakan, namun memiliki potensi ekonomi yang cukup tinggi serta diminati oleh warga etnis Tiongkok. Lebih lanjut, data dan informasi mengenai biwa di Indonesia masih terbatas. Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sebaran ekologi dan keragaman jenis biwa yang terdapat di lima kabupaten di Sumatera Utara. Kegiatan dilaksanakan di lima kabupaten di Sumatera Utara, yaitu Kabupaten Samosir, Tobasa, Simalungun, Dairi, Karo pada rentang ketinggian 900–1.500 mdpl. Berdasarkan hasil inventarisasi diperoleh sebanyak 57 nomor koleksi tanaman biwa yang terdiri dari 52 nomor stek bibit dan 5 nomor herbarium. Selain itu, diketahui bahwa terdapat tipe variasi tanaman biwa yang dapat dibedakan berdasarkan bentuk buah (bulat oval dan lonjong), warna buah (kuning pucat dan jingga tua), bentuk daun (lanset dan bulat telur terbalik), serta bentuk tajuk (tegak dan menyebar).

Abstract

Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) belongs to the Rosaseae Rosaceae family is native to China and spread to Japan, Korea, the Indian mountains and Europe. In Indonesia, loquat was is found in the highland of North Sumatra. It has economic potential and specific market for Chinese ethnic, but not widely cultivated yet. Moreover, the data and information about loquat in Indonesia is are still limited. The aim of this study wasThis study aimed to determine the ecological distribution and diversity of loquat in North Sumatra. The inventarisation and ecological study of loquat was were conducted in five regencies of North Sumatra, i.e. Samosir, Tobasa, Simalungun, Dairi, and Karo at an altitude of 900–1,500 m asl. We were obtainedThere were 57 number collection of loquat, consisting of 52 numbers of seedling from cuttings and 5 numbers of herbarium. Moreover, the results showed that the variation of loquat in North Sumatra can be distinguished based on fruit shapes (oval and elliptic), fruit colours (pale yellow and dark orange), leaf shapes (lanceolate and obovate), and canopy shapes (erect and spreading).


Keywords


Biwa; Ekologi; Inventarisasi; Sumatera Utara; Ecology; Inventory; Loquat; North Sumatera

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15408/kauniyah.v12i2.10917 Abstract - 0 PDF - 0

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