Pengukuran Terhadap Intensi Berwirausaha Siswa SMK: Hasil Uji Validitas Konstruk Intensi Berwirausaha

Niqo Ahmad

Abstract


Abstract

Vocational School (SMK) is one of educational institution enterpreneurship based. Current research aims to show that enterpreneurship education indirectly increases enterpreneurial intention by renewing knowledge, regulating abilities, and strenghtening determination to be an enterpreneur (Guifang, et al., 2012). But in fact,  data from Central Statistics Agency (BPS) shows that the level of jobless related to educational level, especially among Vocational School graduates is in the highest level, 9,87%. From this fact, researches related to enterpreneurial intention among vocational student are important to do. In the psychological literature, intention is proven as the best predictor to describe future behavior (Ajzen, 1991).

 

Abstrak

Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan (SMK) merupakan salah satu lembaga pendidikan berbasis kewirausahaan. Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pendidikan kewirausahaan dapat meningkatkan intensi berwirausaha secara tidak langsung dengan memperbarui pengetahuan, mengolah kemampuan, dan memperkuat tekad untuk berwirausaha (Guifang, et al., 2012), namun Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) pada Berita Resmi Statistik (2012) pada bulan Agustus tahun 2012 menyatakan Tingkat Pengangguran Terbuka (TPT) menurut pendidikan tertinggi yang ditamatkan menunjukkan SMK berada pada tingkat yang paling tinggi yaitu 9,87%. Hal tersebut membuat penelitian terkait intensi berwirausaha pada siswa SMK penting untuk dilakukan. Dalam literatur psikologi, intensi telah terbukti sebagai prediktor terbaik untuk menggambarkan perilaku yang akan datang (Ajzen, 1991).


Keywords


Uji Validitas Konstruk, Intensi Berwirausaha, Analisis Faktor Konfirmatorik

References


DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Afzalurrahman. (1997). Muhammad Sebagai Seorang Pedagang. Jakarta: Penerbit Yayasan Swarna Bhumy.

Ajzen, I. (2005). Attitudes, Personality, and Behavior. Maidenlead. UK: Open University Press.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The Theory of Planned Behavior Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Prosesses. USA: Academic Press, Inc.

Alhaj, B., Yusof, M., & Edama, N. (2011). Entrepreneurial Intention: An Empirical Study of Community College Students in Malaysia.Jurnal Personalia Pelajar, Bil 14 : 45 – 58. Malaysia.

Ariani, D.W. (2006). Need for Achievement dalam Kinerja Individu: Tinjauan Konseptual. Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta.

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2012). Keadaan Ketenagakerjaan Agustus 2012. Berita Resmi Statistik No. 75/11/Th. XV.

Brown, Eleanor. R. (2010). Generation X and Y:A comparative analysis of entrepreneurial intent. Gordon Institute of Business Science, University of Pretoria.

Campo, José L.M. (2011). Analysis of the influence of self-efficacy on entrepreneurial intentions. Prospect. Vol. 9, No. 2.

Castillo, M. R. (2009). Autonomy as a Foundation of Human Development: A Conceptual Model to Study Individual Autonomy. Maastricht Graduate School of Governance. MGSoG/2009/WP011. Maastricht University.

Chaplin, C.P. 2006. Kamus Lengkap Psikologi. Penerjemah: Kartini Kartono. Jakarta: Rajawali Pers.

Dehkordi, A., Sasani, A., Fathi, M., dan Khanmohammadi, E. (2012). Investigating the Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Personality Traits on Entrepreneurial Intention Using the Fuzzy DEMATEL Method.International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 3 No. 13; July 2012. USA: Centre for Promoting Ideas.

De Noble, A.F., Jung, Dong., Ehrlich, S.B. (1999). Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy: The Development of a Measure and Its Relationship to Entrepreneurial Action. San Diego State University.

Direktorat Pembinaan Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan. (2012). Garis-Garis Besar Program Pembinaan SMK Tahun 2012. Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Menengah, Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Fatoki, Olawale. (2010). Graduate Entrepreneurial Intention in South Africa: Motivations and Obstacles. International Journal of Business and Management. South Africa: Department of Business Management, University of Fort Hare.

Feist, & Feist. (2010). Teori Kepribadian Jil. 2. Jakarta: Salemba Humanika.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Bilief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior. An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.

Friedman, H., & Schustack, M. (2009). Personality: Classic Theories and Modern Research 4th Edition. Boston: Pearson Higher Education.

Gelard, P., & Saleh, K.E. (2010). Impact of some contextual factors on entrepreneurial intention of university students. African Journal of Business Management Vol. 5(26), pp. 10707-10717, 28 Oktober, 2011.

Guifang, Z., Peng, C., Luqing, F., & Ziqi, C. An Emprical of College Carve-Out Education on Entrepreneurial Intention. China: School of Economics and Managemen, Beijing Forestry University.

Gubruz, G., & Aykol, S. (2008). Entrepreneurial Intention of Young Educated Public in Turkey. Turkey: Marmara University.

Hassan, R.A & Wafa, S.A. (2005). Predictors Towards Entrepreneurial Intention: A Malaysian Case Study. Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences Vol. 01 No. 11 [01-05].

Hashemi, S., Hosseini, S., & Rezvanfar, A. (2012). Explaining Entrepreneurial Intention among Agricultural Students: Effects of Entrepreneurial Self Efficacy and College Entrepreneurial Orientation. Journal of Business Management.

Hmieleski, K.M and Corbett, A.C (2006). Proclivity for Improvisation as a Predictor of Entrepreneurial Intentions.Journal of Small Business Management 2006 44(1), pp. 45–63.

Hmieleski, K.M., & Baron, R.A. (2008). When does entrepreneurial self-efficacy Enhance versus reduce firm performance. Strategic Entrepreneurship J., 2: 57–72.

Hyrsky, Kimmo., & Tuunanen, Mika. (1999). Innovativeness and Risk-taking Propensity: A Cross-Cultural Study of Finnish and U.S. Entrepreneurs and Small Business Owners. University of Jyväskylä, School of Business & Economics.

Indira, C., Soenhadji, I., (2010). Students Entrepreneurship Intention: Study of Comparison Between Java and Non Java.Jurusan Manajemen, Fakultas Ekonomi. Depok: Universitas Gunadarma.

Indarti, N. dan Rostiani, R. (2008). Intensi Kewirausahaan Mahasiswa: Studi Perbandingan Antara Indonesia, Jepang dan Norwegia.Jurnal Ekonomika dan Bisnis Indonesia, Vol. 23, No. 4, Oktober 2008.

Izquierdo, E., Buelens, M. (2008). Competing Models of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Attitudes.Internationalizing Entrepreneurship Education and Training Conference. USA: Oxford.

Kementerian Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi (2012). Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Panjang 2010-2025 Bidang Ketenagakerjaan dan Ketransmigrasian. Peraturan Menteri Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi Republik Indonesia.

KEP. 16/MEN/II/2010. (2010). Perluasan Kesempatan Kerja dan Peningkatan Kesejahteraan Tenaga Kerja Melalui Penciptaan dan Pengembangan Wirausaha. Kesepakatan Bersama antara Kementerian Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi, Kementerian Koperasi dan Usaha Kecil dan Menengah, Kementerian Perindustrian dengan Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan, dan Kementerian Pemuda dan Olah Raga.

Kerlinger, Fred N. (2002). Foundations of Behavioral Research. 3rd ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Publishing Co.

Khodabakhshi, S., & Talebi, K. (2012). Evaluating the Role of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy on Entrepreneurial Intention of Tehran University (Case Study of Engineering Campus). Journal of Education and Vocational Research Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 82-88. Iran: Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran.

Larsen, Randy J., & David, M. Buss. (2002). Personality psychology: Domains of knowladge about human nature (1st ed). New York. McGraw Hill.

Levenson, Hanna. (1981). Differentiating Among Internality, Powerful Others, and Chance. Research with The Locus of Control Construct (Vol. 1). Academic Press.

Linan, F., & Chen, Y. (2006). Testing the Entrepreneurial Intention Model On a Two-Country Sample. Spain: Departament d'Economia de l'Empresa, Facultat de Ciències Econòmiques i Empresarials.

Mahshunah, Shofia. (2010). Hubungan Antara Self Efficacy Dengan Intensi Berwirausaha (Penelitian Pada Siswa Kelas XII SMK Ibu Kartini Semarang). Under Graduates thesis, Universitas Negeri Semarang.

Mobaraki, M.H., Zare, Y.B. (2012). Designing Pattern of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy on Entrepreneurial Intention. Information Management and Business Review Vol. 4, No. 8, pp. 428-433.

Muzayini, Ayi. E. K. (2008). Indahnya Berbisnis Dengan Tuhan. Tangerang: Penerbit Fatihah Publishing.

Nicholson., et al. (2005). Risk Propensity and Personality. London: Economic and Social Research Council.

Nishantha, Busige (2009). Influence of Personality Traits and Socio-demographic Background of Undergraduate Students on Motivation for Entrepreneurial Career: The Case. of Sri Lanka.Euro-Asia Management Studies Association (EAMSA) Conference. Japan: Doshisha Business School.

Nwankwo, B., Marire, M., Kanu, G., Balogun, S., & Uhiara, A. (2012). Gender-Role Orientation and Self Efficacy as Correlates of Entrepreneurial Intention.European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 6. Nigeria.

Ogundipe, S., Kosile, B., Olaleye, V., Ogundipe, L. (2012). Entrepreneurial Intention among Business and Counseling Students in Lagos State University Sandwich Programme.Journal of Education and Practice Vol 3, No 14.

Opoku-Antwi, G., Amofah, K., Koffuor, K., & Yakubu, A. (2012). Entrepreneurial Intention Among Senior High School Students in the Sunyani Municipality. International Review of Management and Marketing Vol. 2, No. 4, 2012, pp.210-219.

Pedhazur, E.J, (1997), Multiple Regression in Behavioral Research (3th Ed). CBS College Publishing, New York.

Prihatsanti, Unika. (2010). Hubungan Kepuasan Kerja Dan Need For Achievement Dengan Kecenderungan Resistance To Change Pada Dosen Undip Semarang. Semarang: Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Diponegoro.

Santrock, J.W. (2009). Psikologi Pendidikan Edisi 3 Buku 2. Jakarta: Salemba Humanika.

Sieger, P., Fueglistaller, U., & Zellweger, T. (2011). Entrepreneurial Intentions and Activities of Students across the World. International report of the Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students’ Survey project (GUESSS 2011). St.Gallen: Swiss Research Institute of Small Business and Entrepreneurship at the University of St.Gallen (KMU-HSG).

Stewart, W.H., & Roth, P.L. (2001) Risk Propensity Differences Between Entrepreneurs and Managers: A Meta-Analytic Review.Arthur M. Spiro Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership Working PaperNumber: 99-101.

Suryana, (2009). Kewirausahaan: Pedoman praktis kita dan proses menuju sukses. Jakarta: Salemba empat.

Thompson, Edmund. (2009). Individual Entrepreneurial Intent: Construct Clarification and Development of an Internationally Reliable Metric. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. Baylor University.

Turker, D., Selcuk, S. (2008). Which factors affect entrepreneurial intention of university students? Journal of European Industrial Training Vol. 33 No. 2. Turkey: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Umar, Jahja (2010). Personality Needs, Kepuasan, & Prestasi Kerja.UIN Jakarta Press: Ciputat.

UU No. 69 Tahun 2009. Percepatan Pelayanan Perizinan dan Non Perizinan Untuk Memulai Usaha. Peraturan Bersama Menteri Dalam Negeri, Menteri Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia, Menteri Perdagangan, Menteri Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi, dan Kepada Badan Koordinasi Penanaman Modal

Winardi, J. (2004). Entrepreneur & Entrepreneurship. Jakarta: Prenada Media.

Woolfolk, Anita.(2009). Educational Psychology Active Learning Edition. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Zain, ZahariahM. (2010). Entrepreneurship Intention Among Malaysian Business Students. Canadian Social Science Vol. 6, No. 3, 2010, pp. 34-44

Konsep/Penjelasan Teknis Tenaga Kerja. http://www.bps.go.id/ diunduh pada tanggal 20 Januari 2014 pukul 22.00 WIB.

http://www.depnakertrans.go.id/perundangan.html,1,343,10 diunduh pada tanggal 28 Desember 2012 pukul 20.00 WIB.

http://www.depnakertrans.go.id/ diunduh pada tanggal 28 Desember 2012 pukul 22.00 WIB.


Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.15408/jp3i.v4i1.9261

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.