The Determinants of the Technical Efficiency of Secondary Schools in Malaysia: A Panel Evidence

Rozita Baba, Zulkefly Abdul Karim, Mariani Abdul Majid, Noorasiah Sulaiman


This study aims to identify the level of technical efficiency of secondary schools and its determinants using the data of 626 Malaysian secondary schools over 2010-2014. Two estimation techniques have been used; the first step is to estimate the school's efficiency score by employing a Data Envelopment Analysis approach. In the second step, we examine the factors affecting the schools' efficiency using a static panel data analysis. The main findings revealed that secondary education is technically inefficient, and on average, the schools can increase their output by 33% using the same resources. Secondary schools in rural areas and less-developed states indicate a better technical efficiency level than schools in urban areas and developed states. Factors that affect technical efficiency are school size, per capita income, and average wage.  The findings suggest that the school may perform better by increasing the schools' size by having more classes.  The opportunities to increase residents' and households' income may help the areas perform better than others.

JEL Classification: H5, H75

How to Cite:

Baba, R., Karim, Z. A., Majid, M. A., & Sulaiman, N. (2021). The Determinants of The Technical Efficiency of Secondary Schools in Malaysia: Panel Evidence. Etikonomi, 20(1), 169 – 184.


technical efficiency; efficiency determinants; secondary school; data envelopment analysis; static panel data

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